The Polish premier and the German chancellor have said in Berlin that they want to intensify their bilateral ties. However, "serious differences" on Poland's judicial reforms and the Nord Stream pipeline remain.
Although the two leaders appeared at ease during their joint press conference and emphasized their cooperation in defense and foreign policy, Merkel noted that there are still "serious differences of opinion" between Berlin and Warsaw.
Refugee resettlement: The Polish government has refused to take in asylum seekers under an EU-wide quota system, saying that it doesn't have the capacity and shouldn't be forced to resettle them. The EU has sued Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic over their low refugee intake.
Poland's 'Holocaust law': A diplomatic row between Israel and Poland was sparked after Warsaw passed a law that criminalizes ascribing blame for crimes committed by Nazi Germany to the Polish nation, including use of the term "Polish death camp." Berlin has repeatedly stated that Nazi Germany was responsible for the atrocities committed during World War II.
New Holocaust law controversial
Judicial and media reforms: A recent raft of judicial reforms has been criticized by Brussels and several European countries, who say they jeopardize the independence of the judiciary. Warsaw insists the measures are needed to combat corruption. Poland faces disciplinary measures from Brussels if it does not scrap the reforms.
Nord Stream 2: The Polish government also strongly objects to a proposed gas pipeline project that would link Russia to Germany and bypass Poland and Ukraine. Warsaw argues that the pipeline would make Europe more dependent on Moscow.