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Poland, an EU member since 2004, is the birthplace of the Solidarity movement, which helped bring down Soviet-style communism in the late 1980s. It was also the site of some of the 20th century's greatest tragedies.
Home to 38.5 million people, Poland sits in the near heart of Europe, bordered by Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and the Russian enclave Kaliningrad. The prime location and large amount of land (more than 300,000 square kilometers) Poland enjoys have enticed more than one of the country's neighbors to attempt to take it over. Poland survived the 1939-45 Nazi occupation, however, and endured over four decades of Soviet dominance to emerge as one of the EU's shining stars in Central Europe.
Tensions over the EU's sustainability taxonomy, a defence pact causes concern in Slovakia, taxing times for Poland's middle classes and Italian police refuse to wear pink. Also: protection for journalists at demonstrations in Germany, Turkish-Armenian relations begin to thaw, France's liaison dangereuse with public intellectuals and life at the circus resumes in Hungary.
Cheers and jeers over EU plans to label gas and nuclear energy, climate friendly - Poland’s Watergate scandal over spyware attacks heats up - Bikes revolutionize the school run in Barcelona - Brexit one year after Britain left the EU - Why schools are key to preserving local life on Italy’s Aeolian islands - All aboard the night train! Why more and more people are sleeping their way across Europe