Ever since the 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula by Russia and the outbreak of fighting between pro-Russian separatists and government troops in eastern Ukraine, support for the former soviet republic, whether through aid or sanctions, has taken on increased geopolitical significance.
It was not clear from the phone call memo whether Trump and Zelenskiy were criticizing Germany for failing to provide a specific type of support.
However, according to the latest OECD figures, Germany is the third largest donor to Ukraine after the European Union as a whole and the US.
Additionally, figures provided to DW by the German Foreign Ministry indicate that since 2014, the country has pumped almost €1.2 billion ($1.3 billion) of bilateral financial aid into Ukraine. This total includes some €544 million of official development cooperation, €110 million in humanitarian aid, a financial loan of €500 million, and some €25 million for stabilization measures, such as conflict monitoring and the promotion of the rule of law.
Germany has paid another €200 million to Ukraine via EU aid contributions.
Pivotal roles in peace talks
In his phone conversation with Trump, the Ukrainian president also said that he had met with Merkel, as well as French President Emmanuel Macron, and told them that, "They are not enforcing the sanctions" against Russia that were put in place after the annexation of Crimea. "They are not working as much as they should work for Ukraine," Zelenskiy added.
"In the peace talks of the Normandy format [consisting of Ukraine, Russia, Germany and France] ... Germany has also been working ... for many years to resolve the conflict in eastern Ukraine," the Foreign Ministry told DW, referring to the grouping that associated the Minsk deal.
Merkel support for sanctions
In German government circles, Merkel is also viewed as a strong supporter of EU sanctions against Russia, which were extended earlier this month until January 2020.
Merkel said in June that, "As long as there is no progress on this front, the sanctions cannot be lifted, and the sanctions related to Crimea can only be lifted if Crimea returns to Ukraine."
Yet not all Germans share the chancellor's view. Some politicians, particularly those in eastern Germany, are calling on the government to ease the sanctions before Germany's next general election in 2021. Their opposition is due in large part to the effects of reciprocal measures introduced by Moscow that have hit the German agricultural sector.
Ukraine is worried that the pipeline could give Russia increased political leverage over the EU. Also, like neighboring states in Eastern Europe and the Baltic, Ukraine fears the Kremlin could eventually cut off gas deliveries to and through the country, thereby threatening its energy security.
During Zelenskiy's visit to Berlin in June, Merkel sought to ease Ukrainian fears, saying that she has repeatedly told Russian President Vladimir Putin that Ukraine's status as a transit country for gas is "essential, so very, very important."
"President Putin has always stressed to me that he understands that," Merkel said.
The pipeline was not mentioned in the phone call memo between Trump and Zelenskiy. However, as Ukraine has looked to diversify its energy sources, it has turned towards the US. In August, Washington and Kyiv agreed to increase cooperation for deliveries of American natural gas to Ukraine.