India is suffering from the worst water crisis in its history. But Rajender Singh has been working to restore supply to more than a thousand villages, and has rejuvenated 11 rivers using traditional techniques.
It's early morning in the northern Indian city of Alwar, 95 miles (153 kilometers) south of the capital New Delhi. Scores of women have gathered at a municipal tap to get water for their families. Each of them has brought numerous vessels to collect as much water as possible, as supply is limited.
Millions of livelihoods are under threat from India's water crisis, according to a recent report by the National Institution for Transforming India, a policy think tank.
The report says that about 200,000 Indians die every year due to inadequate access to safe water, with 600 million facing what is termed "extreme water stress."
India is experiencing a major water crisis. Women arrive go to community taps each day to fill up on as water as they can before the source runs dry
That stress is evident when the water stops flowing from community water taps such as this one. One person left in exactly that situation was 55-year-old Morchi Bai.
"This is not the first time that the water supply has stopped before my turn has come. Again today, I will have to beg my neighbor for a bucket of water," Bai told DW.
"The government needs to look at our problems."
India's rural poor are highly susceptible to the effects of extreme weather and climate change. As many as 63 million Indians do not have access to clean drinking water, as reported by WaterAid, a global advocacy group on water and sanitation.
However, there are people battling to bring about change.
Rajender Singh, popularly known as the "water man of India," has brought water back to more than a thousand villages, and has rejuvenated 11 rivers which are now flowing year-round as a result of conserving water through earthen bunds — embankments built to hold water in a catchment area.
For his community-based water management efforts, he has been granted the Ramon Magsaysay award, and the Stockholm Water Prize — sometimes referred to as the "Nobel Prize" for water.
Read more: Narrowing floodplains threaten Delhi
Singh's organization Tarun Bharat Sangh is located just 40 miles from Alwar, in the village of Bheekampura. But water levels at the two locations are considerably different.
Bheekampura is a naturally arid area, but with the lush, green leaves of trees rustling in the breeze, the atmosphere is pleasant; the water stress evident in Alwar is not apparent here. Earthen dams, built by the locals to capture and conserve rainwater, are a common sight.
For 92-year-old Shyoji Ram, the memories of building one such dam alongside his fellow villagers in Bheekampura, under the guidance of Rajender Singh 34 years ago, remain clear.
Women, who are often the people fetching the water and caring for children, are often hit hardest by water shortages
He compares a dark past with a much brighter present.
"There is a massive difference," Ram told DW. "What once was barren land is now filled with water and blooming trees. The river which used to run dry now overflows sometimes."
Working with others, Singh blocked monsoon streams and used hills slopes to gather the water.
"Rajender's technique has helped the village see water again," Ram said.
Women at the frontlines
Ram is speaking at a so-called water parliament — a community forum where hundreds of farmers have gathered to discuss issues around water.
The forum is taking place at Bheekampura, and caters to residents of Alwar and surrounding districts. It is an inclusive gathering in India's multi-layered society, with men and women of many different castes and creeds taking part.
At the event, Singh thanks people for their efforts in protecting local water supplies.
"A community management system is the best method to deal with natural resources," he said.
"We were able to build 11,800 annicuts [dams in India constructed in order to supply waterways leading from it], check dams, and bunds in the last 34 years. We were also able to restore water to around 250,000 wells that had long since run dry."
Addressing the assembly, he explains how "johads," or earthen dams — an ancient Indian method for catching rainwater — can prevent flooding and raise groundwater levels.
The dam's low walls help slow water flow in the wet season, and allow water to percolate into the earth. It remains there once dry weather returns.
Women are often at the frontlines of water stress in India. One of them, Lakhi Bai from the district of Karauli, is attending the parliament to learn ways to combat the severe shortages she faces.
"Rajender advised us to form self-help groups for women to construct water harvesting structures to catch and store rainwater," she told DW.
Each structure, with a storage capacity of 1,500 cubic meters per hectare [21,500 cubic feet per acre], was able to raise the water table by about 6 meters [20 feet].
"This was quite evident to see in the wells," Bai said.
A farmer stands in his dried up cotton field. India's government is aware that water crises will likely worsen
'The day when no water is left'
Singh emphasizes the urgency of India's current water crisis, saying action must be taken immediately. He thinks that developing an effective system for the management and utilization of water that can be collected in vessels, as well as groundwater, is absolutely essential.
"When India achieved independence from British rule in 1947, only 232 villages were devoid of drinking water — but the number has today increased to 250,000," he pointed out.
Droughts have increased tenfold, while the chance of flooding is eight times higher, he continued. "Most of the water bodies are facing the effects of pollution, encroachment, sand mining and water extraction."
India holds just 4 percent of the world's freshwater, despite having 16 percent of the world's total population.
Read more: Are we running out of fresh water?
Read more: Ganges under threat from climate change
It is expected that by 2030, water demand in India will have doubled. That could mean severe water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.
Indian Water Minister U.P. Singh is well aware of the potential catastrophe, and the importance of sustainable supply for the future.
"India is the world's largest user of groundwater, accounting for 25 percent of the global total. The aquifers are drying up, and with the way the water is being exploited ... there may come a day when there is no water left."
Such a looming bottleneck makes the work of Rajender Singh all the more pressing.
Water, a precious good: