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FILE - A mother sits with her seriously malnourished child at a feeding centre run by German Agro Action (GAA) in the village of Nosy Varika on the eastern coast of Madagascar, 18 July 2007. The aid project falls under the European Commission Humanitarian Aid (ECHO). The area of eastern Madagascar has numerous malnourished children because of a combination of incorrect farming techniques and dietary problems stemming from an inadequate diet. Recent cyclones in 2006 also contributed to the need for foreign aid. Foto: EPA/KIM LUDBROOK (zu dpa: "Unicef: Alle fünf Sekunden stirbt weltweit ein Kind" vom 13.09.2013) +++(c) dpa - Bildfunk+++
Image: picture-alliance/dpa

Child mortality

Andreas Gorzewski / re
October 23, 2013

The Millennium Goal to reduce child mortality by two-thirds will not be achieved. Save the Children published a country ranking and called for further action to reduce preventable child deaths.


The development of child mortality can be seen optimistically or pessimistically. In 1990, 12 million children died from preventable causes before they reached the age of five. Last year, the number decreased to 6.6 million,according to estimates of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). Compared to births, overall child mortality declined by 40 percent.

Yet the numbers still fall short of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDG calls for child mortality to be reduced by two-thirds by 2015. The children's right organization Save the Children has called for additional efforts in reducing child mortality. On Wednesday (23.10.2013) the organization published a country ranking and reports about the successes and the failures.

"We are seeing very positive progress. In the last generation, we have halved the number of children dying of preventable causes around the world," Ben Hewitt, campaign manager of Save the Children, told DW. "But it's opening up some questions on how we take this further and end all preventable child death."

The ranking of 75 emerging and developing countries not only considered the decrease of child deaths, but also examined efforts made to achieve equal chances of survival for boys and girls and for children from rich or poor families. The report went on to evaluate the sustainability of national child mortality reduction polices.

MANILA, PHILIPPINES - AUGUST 18: Mothers and their newborns shares space on a bed after giving birth in the maternity ward at the government-run Jose Fabella maternity hospital August 18, 2012 in Manila, Philippines. The hospital deals with an average of 65 up to 100 births per day. Manila has a population of about 20 million people which is rising by approximately another quarter of a million every year as the city continues to deal with overpopulation on a daily basis. Due to overcrowding a third of the city dwellers are forced to live on any bit of spare land they can manage to find. Poverty causes people to live under bridges, railway lines and even cemeteries. (Photo by Paula Bronstein/Getty Images)
The survival chances of newborns often depend on the place of birthImage: Getty Images

Niger topped the report's list of achievements. Although 114 out of 1,000 children under the age of five still die in Niger, that is considerably less than the 326 out of 1,000 child deaths in 1990. The result is remarkable because the child mortality reduction affected all income brackets. The country's results, however, still trail far behind other parts of the world. In Germany, child mortality rate of 14 out of 1,000.

Majority of child deaths avoidable

Countries like Liberia, Rwanda, Indonesia and Madagascar also score well in the ranking. In fact, some countries met the child mortality MDG. On the bottom end of the list are countries including Haiti, Papua New Guinea and Equatorial Guinea. The main causes that a child dies every five seconds are malnutrition, pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea and premature birth. According to Save the Children, the majority of these deaths could be prevented.

There are several factors explaining why some countries are more successful in the fight against child mortality than others. Political stability and environmental influences like periods of drought have major influences. The most important factor, Hewitt said, is that countries have a specific health care policy. This is the case in Ethiopia where the government trained tens of thousands health professionals. The country is close to reaching the child mortality MDG.

Other countries also show that an increase of the chances of survival can be reached without significant economic growth. "In countries investing in health care and nutrition support for mothers and children, we are seeing dramatic progress."

Martin Dawes, UNICEF communication officer for West and Central Africa, holds the affected government responsible. They must provide sufficient funds for health care. "There is an agreement that governments spend 15 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) on health," he said. But only Liberia and Togo did so. "In a country like Nigeria, that only spends about 4 percent on health, you are going to have major problems."

ARCHIV - ILLUSTRATION - Händewaschen in schlammigem Wasser in Pampore (Kaschmir) am 05.06.2006. Einfaches Händewaschen kann Hunderttausenden Kindern jedes Jahr das Leben retten. 1,5 Millionen Jungen und Mädchen unter fünf Jahren sterben alljährlich an Durchfallerkrankungen. Jeden Tag tötet Durchfall 4000 Kinder, vor allem in Afrika und Südasien. «Händewaschen mit Seife kann Kindersterblichkeit durch Durchfall fast halbieren», heißt es in einem am Mittwoch veröffentlichten Bericht von UN-Kinderhilfswerk UNICEF und Weltgesundheitsorganisation WHO. Foto: Altaf Qadri dpa (zum 15. Oktober - Welttag des Händewaschens) +++(c) dpa - Bildfunk+++
Polluted water can cause life-threatening diarrheaImage: picture-alliance/dpa

The MDGs are interdependent

Notwithstanding the success, there is still a lot to do, Hewitt said. It is not acceptable that the child mortality among newborns increased. The number of deaths among newborn boys and girls amounts to 44 percent of all child deaths before the age of five. The increasing gap between rich and poor and between urban and rural areas endangers the previous progress.

The MDGs are interdependent, Hewitt said, pointing out that the MDGs to reduce child mortality and to reduce maternal mortality are closely connected. The fight against hunger and poverty as well as the call for equality play an important role.

Organizations like UNICEF and Save the Children have already started planning for the period after 2015. According to Hewitt, the set development goals mobilized resources - even though the goals were not reached. "There is the historical opportunity to entirely erase avoidable child deaths until 2030."

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