A Syrian war monitor said the Israeli attack allegedly had targeted sites housing arms depots linked to the Lebanese Hezbollah movement and pro-Iran militias.
Israeli missiles were intercepted by Syrian defenses on Sunday, state media said citing Syria's military.
The missiles were reportedly targeted at several sites in the countryside surrounding the capital Damascus. Syrian state TV had earlier reported that explosions were heard within Damascus.
Some of the missiles were brought down, two soldiers were injured, and some material losses occurred, Syrian state news agency SANA said.
Citing a military source, SANA reported the attack had targeted military posts. "Our air defenses repulsed the missiles and shot down some of them," the source said.
According to the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, the reported Israeli attack had targeted sites housing arms depots linked to the Lebanese Hezbollah movement and pro-Iran militias in north-western Damascus.
But the area also houses positions of the Syrian government forces, the war monitor added.
The Israeli military declined to comment on the incident, as it rarely acknowledges individual strikes. But it has repeatedly warned that it will not allow Syria to become a stronghold of its arch-foe Iran.
On October 14, an Israeli airstrike on Iranian positions in central Syria killed nine fighters allied to the Syrian government.