A court sentenced Kasab to death in 2010 after finding him guilty of waging war against India, murder and terrorist acts. He appealed to the Supreme Court, claiming he had not received a fair trial, but, this August, that was denied.
"Today at 7:30 a.m. (0200 GMT) Ajmal Kasab was hanged at Yervada Central Jail in Pune," Maharashtra Home Minister RR Patil announced. "His execution is a fitting tribute to the victims of Mumbai attacks," Patil added.
On November 5, India's president had rejected Kasab's plea for clemency. He was moved from a Mumbai prison to Pune's Yervada jail two days ago, Patil said.
The city of Pune lies roughly 100 kilometers (62 miles) southeast of Mumbai.
Federal Home Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde in New Delhi confirmed the execution.
"The government of Pakistan has been informed of the hanging," Shinde said.
A total of 166 died in the three-day attack on Mumbai by 10 gunmen. Security forces killed nine of the terrorists. India said the attackers arrived by sea from Pakistan, and were trained by the Lashkar-e-Taiba militant group.
Kasab was held in a high-security cell in Mumbai for over three years years. His hanging came just before the fourth anniversary of the attack, which began late in the night of November 26 and continued until November 29.
mkg/kms (AFP, Reuters, AP, dpa)