Syria's Douma struggles to survive
Douma has been under siege by President Bashar al-Assad's forces since October 2013. Air and ground attacks have caused extensive damage to the town. Firas Abdullah reports on life in Douma.
Ravaged by war
The besieged rebel-held city of Douma in Syria is located in the east, around 10 kilometers (6 miles) outside the capital Damascus.
Over the last six years, countless civilian neighborhoods have been completely or partially destroyed by Russian and Syrian-led airstrikes. Children have become used to living in these bombed-out areas and have turned the rubble into a playground.
Most schools and other public institutions were moved underground because of the bombing and the airstrikes on the city. Education is crucial for this war generation as the country's future hinges on them.
Most of the time, Douma is being hit by regime and Russian airstrikes. In this image, a man was checking the damage to his house while the warplanes were still flying overhead.
Back to basics
The bread baking machines have ground to a halt due to a lack of flour and fuel to keep them running. Making bread by hand is an old tradition in Syria and some Douma residents have opened up shops to bake and sell bread. One piece of bread costs 75 Syrian Pounds (30 euro cents).
Abeer* lost her right leg in a bomb explosion in front of near her home while she was with her cousin Hassan* who was killed by the same bomb. Abeer is just one of thousands of injured children. Despite her loss, she's determined to live like anyone else, playing with friends and going outside. *Names have been changed.
Darkness at the edge of town
At night Douma is plunged into darkness. There has been little to no electricity since the siege began. Locals ration the use of their generators for their shops and homes.
Keeping up appearances
Ironing clothes has not exactly been a priority for people in Douma but whenever possible and with the help of an old iron heated over a coal fire, mundane tasks help to regain a sense of normality.