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The Reformation, initiated by German monk Martin Luther in the 16th century, was a schism from the Roman Catholic Church that would later result in the Protestant denomination.

The starting point of the Reformation, later continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant reformers, was the publication of Martin Luther's famous 95 theses in 1517. Luther strongly criticized the practice of indulgences, corruption by the clergy, as well as the role of the priest as envisaged by the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation had profound theological, philosophical, social and political consequences throughout the world. The process of the Reformation finally came to its end with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 that concluded the Thirty Years' War.

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