Shekaru 40 da kawo karshen cutar agana | Zamantakewa | DW | 12.05.2020
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Zamantakewa

Shekaru 40 da kawo karshen cutar agana

Shekaru 40 da suka gabata aka kawar da kwayar cutar agana ko 'yar rani wato Smallpox a Turancin Ingilishi, godiya ta tabbata ga kwararan matakai da gagarumin aikin allurar rigakafi da Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya, WHO ta yi.

Pocken Patient (cc-by/Otis Historical Archives of National Museum of Health & Medicine)

Cutar smallpox ko agana, ta kasance mai kisa

Cika shekaru 40 da kawo karshen wannan cutar mai kisa dai, na zuwa ne adaidai lokacin da duniya fuskantar wata sabuwar annoba mai saurin yaduwa da kuma kisa. Ko wadannan matakai ka iya zama abin koyi a yakin da ake yi yanzu da annobar ta coronavirus? A farkon watan Mayun 1980 Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya WHO, ta sanar da kawar da kwayar cutar 'yar rani wato "Variola" da ta halaka miliyoyin mutane a duniya. A karni na 20 mutane kimanin miliyan 300 suka rasu sakamakon cutar, da kan halaka kahi 60 cikin 100 na wadanda suka kamu da ita. Ba ya ga kisa tana janyo makanta da kurumta da shanyewar bangarori na jiki da kuma zanzana. 

Nasara a kasashen da suka ci-gaba

Sai dai gagarumar yekuwar yin allurar rigakafi da ta yi nasara a manyan kasashe masu arzkin masana'antu, ba ta yi tasiri kamar haka ba a yankuna masu rauni na Indiya da Afirka, inda cutar ta 'yar rani ta ci gaba da yaduwa. Hakan ta sanya a farkon 1967, hukumar ta WHO ta sauya dabara ta kuma gabatar da sabuwar yekuwa da ta kai ga samun galaba a daidaikun yankuna.

Zubehör für Pockenimpfung (Getty Images)

Taimakon alluran rigakafi

Gabanin ya rasu a 2016, Dr Donald Henderson da ya kasance shugaban yaki da cutar 'yar rani a WHO daga 1966 zuwa 1977, ya yi bayanin aikinsu a lokacin. "A shekarun 1960 da 1970 aikinmu ya ci karo da bala'o'i irin su ambaliyar ruwa da yunwa da yake-yaken basasa da dubban 'yan gudun hijira a wasu yankuna na Asiya d Afirka. A lokacin ba wayoyin hannu ba Emails ba na'urar aika sakon fax, ba Facebook ba Twitter. Saboda haka a ganina shaida ce ta gagarumin aikin hadin kai tsakanin mashawarta da ma'aikatu da hukumomin lafiya daga kasashe 70 da ta kai ga samun nasarar da ba wanda ya yi tunanin samunta a lokacin."

Ko WHO za ta tuna baya?

An tsara sabuwar dabarar allurar rigakafin ta dace da yanayin kowane yanki. Masu yin allurar kuma sun shiga lungu da sako suna kula da wadanda suka harbu da cutar mai saurin yaduwa. Wani abin da ya taimaka wajen wannan yekuwa shi ne saurin gane cutar, saboda yadda take bayyana a jikin mutum, sabanin corona wadda ba a iya ganinta. Allurar rigakafin ba ta lalacewa, saboda haka ana iya amfani da ita a yankuna masu nisa. Haka kuma tana bai wa mutum kariyar jiki ta tsawon rayuwa.

Allurar rigakfin kimanin miliyan dubu biyu da miliyan 400 aka yi amfani da ita, a kan kudi dalar Amirka miliyan 300. Ana fata cewa a yaki da ake yanzu da cutar corona, WHO za ta iya amfani da dabarun da ta yi a wancan lokaci domin samar da allurar rigakafi cikin sauri da kuma ganin kowa ya samu wannan rigakafi.