Tushen rikicin Isra′ila da Palestinu | Amsoshin takardunku | DW | 27.11.2012
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Amsoshin takardunku

Tushen rikicin Isra'ila da Palestinu

Yaƙi tsakanin Yahudawa da Palesɗinawa na da dogon tarihi.

mit den Städten Jericho, Tulkarem, Kalkilija, Ramallah und Bethlehem.

Rikici tsakanin Isra'ila da Palestinu ya na da dogon tarihi, amma za mu ɗauko shi daga ƙarni na 19 a lokacin da yahudawa bisa jagoranci wani ɗan jarida bayahude ɗan asulin ƙasar Sweeden mai suna Theodore Herzl,suka shirya wani mahimman taron a birnin Bale na ƙasar Sweezerland, wanda sakamakon shi suka ƙirƙiro abinda suka kira Sionisme, wato ƙungiyar ƙwatar 'yanci yahudawa da kuma komawarsu a tsaunin Sion, wanda suka ce nan ne ƙasar ta asuli.

Sun ƙaddamar da wannan shiri dalili da azabar da kuma wariyar da yahudawan su ka ce su na fama da ita a nahiyar Turai.

Bayan girka wannan tsari sai Theodore Herlz ya shiga gwagwarmayar neman matsugunnin dindindin ga yahudawa, inda yayi ta kai gwabro da mari a fadodin mayan ƙasashen duniya na wacen lokaci kamar Birtaniya, Faransa da Daular Turkiyya ta sarki Ottoman.A cikin tsarin sun buƙaci girka matsugunnin yahudawa a Sinai kokuma a ƙasar Yuganda.

A shekara 1905 su ka tsaida shawara tarewa a Palestinu.

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Yahudawa daga Turai sun fara ƙaura zuwa Palestinu a ƙarshen ƙarni na 19, a yayin da wasu suka nufi Amurika.

A lokacin ɓarkewar yaƙin duniya na farko a shekara 1914, Palestinu ta na mutane kusan dubu dari tara kuma 94.000 daga cikinsu yahudawa ne,wanda suka ƙaura daga Turai.Sannu a hankali suna zuwa har dai a ƙarshe suka mamaye Palestinu, a lokacin kuma Palestinu ta na ƙarƙashin mulkin Daular Turkiyya.

Goyan bayan ƙasashen Turai da Isra'ila

Bayan yaƙin duniya na farko ya ƙare, Turkiyya ta na daga cikin yankunan da aka ci yaki, sai Faransa da Ingila suka mamaye yankunan da ta mallaka a Gabas ta Tsakiya kuma suka rabe shi.Palestinu ta fada cikin kulawa Birtaniya.

JERUSALEM:David Gryn, better known as David Ben-Gurion, in file picture dated 1948. Ben-Gurion, the Israeli first Prime Minister who signed the proclamation of Israel's creation on 14 May 1948, was born in Plonsk (Poland) 16 October 1886. Zionist, he immigrated to Palestine in September 1906. Young socialist farmer, Ben-Gurion founded in 1919 a labour party, Mapai and in 1922 the first trade union, Histadrut. (Photo credit should read AFP/Getty Images)

David Ben-Gurion shine ya baiyana sanarwar girka Isra'ila

Ranar biyu ga watan Nowemba na shekara 1917 sai gwamnatin Ingila ta bada cikkaken goyan ga yahudawa abinda ya ba su damar ɓullo da wata sanarwa da aka fi sani cikin tarihi da suna sanarwar Balfour,inda Ingila ta amince Yahudawa su girka matsugunni a Palestinu.Arthu James Balfour a lokacin shi ne Ministan harkokin wajen Birtaniya kuma shi ya rubuta wannan sanarwa saboda haka ta ɗauki sunansa.Wannan sanarwa da wasu ke dangatawa da tubalin tushe na girka ƙasar Isra'ila, ta samu amincewa daga Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta wancen zamanin wato Society of Nations ko kuma Societe des Nations.Daga nan sai yahudawa suka yi ciri zuwa Palestinu.Kuma a cikin yaƙin duniya na biyu Hitler yayi wa yahudawa kisan ƙare dangi a na Jamus da cikin ƙasashen Turai da dama abinda ak fi sani da suna Shoah.Dalili da haka, bayan an ci Hitler da yaƙi sai yahudawan su ƙara samun ɗaurin gindi daga ƙasashen Turai a matsayin shafe hawaye.Bayan yaƙin duniya na biyu sai yawan yahudawa a Palestinu ya tashi zuwa kashi 28 cikin ɗari na jimlar mazaunan ƙasar.Alhali kamin nan suna da 10% kawai.

Girka ƙasar Isra'ila:

An girka ƙasar Isra'ila bayan da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta rattaba hannu kan wata yarjejeniya wadda ta raba Palestinu tsakanin Palestinawa da yahudawa.Majalisar ta ɗauki ƙuduri mai lamba 181 a shekara 1947 wandan ya raba Palestinu kashi ukku: Aka ba yahudawa kashi 55%,Palestinu aka bata akshi 44% sai kuma kashi 1% wanda ya yada da birnin Qudus a matsayin yanki mai zaman kanshi da ke cikin kulawar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya.

(FILES) File photo dated 26 March, 1979 shows Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat (L), Israeli Premier Menachem Begin (R) and US President Jimmy Carter, applauding as they sign the historic US-sponsored peace treaty between Israel and Egypt on the north lawn of the White House. The formal treaty, which granted full recognition of Israel by Egypt, is still in effect in 2002. Jimmy Carter was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 11 October, 2002. A commitment to human rights and the alleviation of human suffering was not only a guiding principle of his single, four-year term as 39th president of the United States, but the cornerstone of The Carter Center he founded 20 years ago to pursue his vision of world diplomacy. dpa dpa 866124

Anwar el Sadat Menachem Begin da Jimmy Carter

Bayan haka sai David Ben Gurion ya ƙaddamar da Isra'ila a matsayin ƙasa mai cikkaken 'yanci ranar 14 ga watan Mayu na shekara 1948.To amma Isra'ila ba ta mutunta wannan kaso ba domin ta ci gaba da mamaye yankunan Palestinawa.Wani babban mataki ma da Majalisar Dokokin Isra'ila wato Knesset ta dauka shine na ƙaddamar birnin Qudus a matsayin babban birnin Isra'ila na har abadan abada, aninda Palestinawa da larabawa su ka ce har ƙasa ta naɗe ba za su amincewa ba da hakan.

Matsayin ƙasashen larabawa a rikicin Isra'ila da Palestinu

Kasashen larabawa da Palestinawa sun nuna adawa ƙwarai da gaske.An sha gwabza yaƙi tsakanin dakarun ƙasashen larabawa da na Isra'ila.Akwai misali yaƙin da a kayi tsakanin Masar da Isra'ila, wanda aka fi sani da yaƙin kwanaki shida, inda a tsukin wannan kwanaki en sojojin Isra'ila suka ci na Masar da yaki a kan riki na Isra'ila da Palestinu domin ƙwace yankunan da yahudawa suka mamayewa Palestinu.

An yi wannan yaƙi a shekara 1967, inda Masar ta samu goyan baya daga sojojin Siriya da na Jordan.

Akwai kuma yaƙin da ake kira yaƙin Kippour a shekara 1973, wanda a nan ma Isra'ila ta samu galaba kan Masar da abokan ƙawancenta.

Akwai yaƙin da aka gwabza tsakanin Isra'ila da Libanon a shekara 1982 duk dai akan rikicin na Palestinu, kuma bayan nan saida rundunar Isra'ila ta mamaye tuddan Golan na ƙasar Siriya.

Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat pauses during an emergency cabinet session, at his compound, in the West Bank town of Ramallah in this Saturday, Oct. 2, 2004 file photo. Late Wednesday, Oct. 27, 2004, Arafat's health deteriorated and his doctors rushed to his room to examine him, an official in Arafat's office said. Soon after, Palestinian Prime Minister Ahmed Qureia and former Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas were summoned to Arafat's compound, the official said. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen)

Yasser Arafat

An cimma yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya tsanin Masar da Isra'ila a Camp David, da aka cimma tsakanin shugaban Masar Annouar Al-Sadate da Firaministan Isra'ila Menaha Begin bisa jagorancin shugaban ƙasar Amurika Jimmy Carter a shekara 1978.

A cikin wane yanayi ne na yaƙe-yaƙe aka girka ƙungiyar gwagwarmayar neman 'yancin Palestinawa wato PLO a shekara 1964 wadda Yasser Arafat ya jagoranta har mutuwarsa.

Banda PLO, Palestinawa sun girka ƙungiyoyin da dama na gwagwarma da Isra'ila daga cikinsu akwai Hamas, Fatah, Jihad Al-Islami da dai sauran su.Wasu daga magoya bayanwannan kungiyo suka kadamar da wani yaki da suka radawa suna Intifada wato juyinjuya hali ta hanyar amfani da jifa da duwatsu.Palestinawa sun ƙaddamar da wannan yaƙi a shekara 1987 har zuwa 1993, wanda mutane fiye da 2000 su ka rasa rayuka aciki, kafin kuma su tada wata sabuwar Intifada a shekara 2000.

Shawarwarin zaman lafiya tsakanin Isra'ila da Palestinu

An hau tebrin shawarwari so da yawa, ba tare da cimma masalaha ba.An fara wannan shawarwari a shekara 1990 a birnin Madrid na ƙasar Spain.Akwai kuma yarjejniyar Oslo a shekara 1993 inda PLO ta amince da Isra'ila a matsayin ƙasa mai cikkaken 'yanci, ita kuma gwamnatin Isra'ila ta amince da PLO, a matsayin hallattar Hukuma mai magana da yawun Palestinawa.An karon farko Majalisar Dokokin Palestinu dake cikin gudun hijira ta yi zaman taron a cikin Palestinu ,inda kuma ta cire matakin dake haramta ƙasar Isra'ila daga cikin dokokinta.

Bayan wannan cigaba da aka samu sai gamayyar ƙasa da ƙasa, misali ƙungiyar tarayya Turai da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya suma su ka bada goyan baya ga shawara girka ƙasashe biyu wato Isra'ila da Palestinu wanda za su maƙwaftaka ta girma da arziki.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu shakes hands with Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas, at his residence in Jerusalem, Israel Wednesday, Sept. 15, 2010. Clinton is in the region for Mideast peace talks. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton on Wednesday said Israeli and Palestinian leaders are getting down to business on core issues of renewed peace talks, but gave no sign they are any closer to resolving a looming crisis over Israeli West Bank settlements. (AP Photo/Alex Brandon, Pool)

Netanjahu da Abbas

Idan da an yi amfani da yarjejeniyar da aka rattaba ma hannu a birnin Oslo da a watan Disemba na shekara 1998 ta kamata a girka ƙasar Palestinu mai cikkaken 'yanci.Bayan shugaban Hukumar Palestinu Yaser Arafat ya kwanta dama ranar 11 ga watan Nowemba na shekara 2004 sai Mahmud Abbas da ya gaje shi ya ci gaba da gawghawramaya.

Itama Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ɗauki ƙudurori da dama to saidai ba tare da sun yi tasiri ba wajen samar da zaman lafiya a yankin Gabas ta Tsakiya.Kuduri mafi tasiri shine na 242 na ranar 22 ga watan Nowemba shekara 1967 inda Komitin Sulhu na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya shata iyakoki tsakanin Isra' ila da Palestinu, kuma ya umurci Isa'ila ta janye daga yankunan Palestinawa.

Saidai duk da wannan ƙudurori da shawarwari har yanzu an kasa cimma burin girka ƙasashe biyu wato Isra'ila da Palestinu, a maimakon haka sai ma al'amura ke ta ƙara taɓarɓarewa, kamar misali yakin da aka gwabza a kwanakin nan tsakanin Isra'ila da ƙungiyar Hamas, wadda ke riƙe da yankin Gaza tun shekara 2007.

President Barack Obama meets with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, left, and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, in New York, Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2009, on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly. (AP Photo/Charles Dharapak)

Barack Obama Benjamin Netanyahu da Mahmoud Abbas

A cikin wannan wata ne shugaban Hukumar Palestinawa Mahmud Abbas zai gabatarwa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya takradar bukatar Palestinu ta zama kasa mai kujero kallo a zauren Majalisar, wanda idan yayi nasara zai zama mataki mai ƙarfi na girka Palestinu a matsayin ƙasa mai cikkaken 'yanci.

Mawallafi: Yahouza Sadissou Madobi
Edita: Usman Shehu Usman