Tasirin birnin Timbuktu a cikin tarihi | Amsoshin takardunku | DW | 28.01.2013
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Amsoshin takardunku

Tasirin birnin Timbuktu a cikin tarihi

Kaburan waliyai da ɗimbin littatafan tarihi a Timbuktu sun ɗaukaka sunan birnin da ke arewacin ƙasar Mali

5AF-T4-E2-2007-1 Timbuktu, Djinger-ber-Moschee / Foto Timbuktu (Mali), Djinger-ber-Moschee (erbaut ab 1325 unter Kankan Mansa Musa I., Arch.: Abu- Ishaq Ibrahim-es-Saheli). - Ansicht. - Foto, 2007. Nutzung nur in Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz und den Niederlanden, usage Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Netherlands only

Timbuktu

Tombouctou ko kuma Timbuktu, birni na ƙasar Mali da ke cikin wurare masu daɗɗaɗen tarihi na duniya, saboda haka ne ma a shekara 1988,cibiyar al'adu, ilimi da kimiya ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya wato UNESCO, ta jera shi a sahun wurare mafi tasiri na duniya .

daga Tombouctou zuwa Bamako babban birnin ƙasar Mali akwai kimanin kilomita dubu ɗaya.Tairihi ya nuna cewar abzinawa suka girka wannan gari a cikin ƙarni na 11, yanzu muna ƙarni na 21, kenan Tombouctou ta samu ƙarni 10 da girkuwa.Idan mu ka yi lissafi duk cikin ƙarni akwai shekaru 100, wato a taƙaice yanzu Tombouctou ta samu shekaru dubu kenan da aka kafa ta.

Tombouctou birni ne wanda masu ilimi suka ziyarata da daɗewa, tun farko-farkon shigowar addinin musulunci a wannan yanki.Saboda haka aka raɗawa garin suna "birnin waliyai 333".Wato a yanzu haka akwai kaburbura na manyan mutrane wanda suka daukaka addinin musulunci a yankin gaba ɗaya, wanda kuma da dama daga cikinsu su ka mutu a Tombouctou.Daga wannan ƙaburkuwa wanda mutane suka fi karramawa sune ƙabarin Sidi Mahmud wanda ke arewacin garin, sannan sai ƙabarin Sidi Moktar da kabrin Alpha Moya da kuma na Cheick El Kebir.Mutanen ƙasar Mali da ma na ƙasashen ƙetare suka zuwa takanas ta Kano su kai ziyara a wannnan kaburra, da ma wasu sauran daga cikin birnin Tombouctou, saboda haka ne ƙungiyar Ansar Dine wadda ta mamaye arewacin Mali ta rusa wannan kaburra wanda ta ce babu abin bautawa sai Allah, kuma ziyarce-ziyarcen da mutane ke yi a wannan ƙabbura ya saɓawa addinin Allah.

Daga jilmar ƙaburburan waliyan 333 da suka mutu a Timbouctou, akwai 16 wanda, aka katange domin ƙara karrama su.

Bayan wannan kabbura na waliyai Tombouctou na daga wasu masalaci guda ukku masu dogon tarihi, akwai masalacin Sidi Yahiya wanda sarki Kanken Musa ya gina a shekara 1325, da masalacin Djingareyber wanda aka kamalla ginawa a shekara 1328 sai kuma masalacin Sankore da wata mata ta gina a ƙarni na 15.

An ɓangaren rubuce-rubuce garin Tombouctou ya yi suna a duniya.

Tombouctou na da littatai wanda masana suka rubuta tun lokacin da aka kafa garin, wasu kuma tun ma kamin musulunci, ya baiyana a yankin.KaminTombouctou ta faɗa hannun ƙungiyoyi masu tsatsauran kishin addinin Islama akwai aƙallla littatafai dubu 18 wanda ke ajje a wata cibiyar bincike mai suna Institut de Hautes Etudes et de Recherches Islamiques Ahmed Baba, shi Ahmad Baba ɗin ya na ɗaya daga manyan marubuta na Bamako,wadda gwamnatin Mali ya kafa a shekara 1973, Afrika ta Kudu ta bada babbar gudummawa wajen sabinta ginin wannan cibiya.Afrika ta Kudu ta zuba tsabar kudin CFA miliyan dubu biyu da rabi wajen gina cibiyar Sannan akwai wasu karin bubbunan dubunan littafan a cikin gidajen ɗaiɗaikun mutane, wanda suke gada iyaye da kakanni.

Mafi yawan daga wannan littatafai an rubuta su da larabaci da filanci kokuma da Hausa.Su na baiyani game da musulunci, kimiyya,al'adu , zamatankewar ɗan Adam,da dai sauran ɓangarori na ilimi.

Daga cikin wannan tittatafai akwai Tarikh el-Fettah wanda Mahmud Kati ya rubuta,akwai kuma Tarikh es-Sudan wanda Abderrahmani es Saadi ya rubuta a ƙarni na 17.

Duk wannan littatafai sun shahara wajen tarihin Sudan, wato yankin ƙasashen da za a iya dangatawa yanzu kusan Afrika baƙar fata, mussamman yankin Afrika ta Yamma na yanzu.

die 1988 von der UNESCO zum Weltkulturerbe erklärte Moschee von Sankore in Timbuktu mit UNESCO-Schild

Masalacin Sankore a Timbuktu

Akwai turawan mullin mallaka da dama wanda suka ziyarci birnin Tombouctou kuma suka yi mamaki game da tasirin wannan birni, mussamman ta ɓangaren rubuce-rubuce da kuma tsarin shugabanin.Daga cikin wannan turawa akwai wani mai suna René Caillé dan kasar Faransa wanda ya je Tombouctou a shekara 1828, bayan shi sai Heinrich Barth ɗan ƙasar Jamus, wanda ya share watani shida a Tombouctou daga 1853 zuwa 1854.

Wannan turawa su suka fara yaɗa tasirin Tombouctou a ƙasashen Turai.A lokacin, an samu masu ilimi da dama na Turai da suka nuna shakku ga bayanai da suka ba da game da Tombouctou.

sai a shekara 1894 da turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa suka kama garin, a lokacin suka tabbatar da sahihancin sannan suka gaskanta baiyanan da suka samu daga turawan farko da suka ziyarci Tombouctou.

Mawallafi: Yahouza Sadissou Madobi
Edita:Mouhamadou Awal Balarabe