Tasirin albarkatun zinare ga rayuwar jama′ar Tanzaniya | Zinariya a Tanzaniya | DW | 11.03.2013
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Zinariya a Tanzaniya

Tasirin albarkatun zinare ga rayuwar jama'ar Tanzaniya

Tabarbarewar rayuwar al'ummar Tanzaniya duk da dimbin arzikin zinare da Allah ya horewa kasar, wanda kanfanonin ketare ke yin ruwa da tsaki wajen gudanar da sashen.

Tanzaniya ce ta ukku cikin jerin kasashen Afirka da Allah ya horewa arzikin zinare, bayan Afirka Ta Kudu da kuma Ghana. Bincike dai ya gano cewar kasar na da arzikin zinaren da yawansa yakai Oz na ma'aunin zinare miliyan 36. Sai dai duk da wannan dimbin arzikin da Allah ya baiwa kasar, al'ummominta ba su gani a kasa ba, domin kuwa manyan kanfanonin kasa da kasa ne suka fi cin gajiyar arzikin.

Kasar Tanzaniya, wadda ke yankin gabashin Afirka dai tana da dimbin arzikin zinare, lamarin daya sa manyan kanfanonin kasa da kasa suka amsa kiran neman zuba jarin da gwamnatinn kasar ta yi musu a cikin shekarun 1990, ta hanyar ba su damar biyan harajin da bai taka kara ya karya ba, da kuma samun lasisin hako ma'adinin ba tare da gumin goshi ba. Sai dai a galibin yankunan da kanfanoni ke hako zinaren, akan samu tashe tashen hankula a tsakaninsu da mazauna yankunan.

Jumanne aus dem Dorf Kewanja sucht nach wertvollen Steinen auf einem Schuttberg der Goldmine. Er gehört zu den „Intrudern“ (Eindringlingen), weil der Berg offiziell dem Minenkonzern gehört. *** Bilder Deutsche Welle, Julia Hahn, November 2012 Ort: Schuttberg am Rande der Nord Mara Goldmine, Nord Mara Region, Tansania *** http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Mara_Gold_Mine North Mara Gold Mine is an open pit gold mine in the Tarime District of the Mara Region of Tanzania. It is operated by African Barrick Gold. It is one of four gold mines African Barrick Gold, a subsidiary of Barrick Gold, operates in Tanzania, the other three being Tulawaka, Bulyanhulu and the Buzwagi Gold Mine. In the financial year 2009, the four operations produced a combined amount of 716,000 attributable ounces of gold.

Mahakar ma'adinai ta arewacin Mara

Matsalar ma ta fi bayyana a yankin arewacin Mara mai arzikin zinare da ke arewa maso yammacin Tanzaniya, ta kan iyakarta da kasar Kenya. Mutane da dama ne ke sadaukar da rayuwarsa don samun zinare ko da kuwa wanda yawansa bai taka kara ya karya ba ne.

Gajiyar da kanfanonin ketare ke ci wajen hako zinare

Akwai mazauna kauyen Kewanya -- mai tazarar kimanin mintuna 30 cikin mota daga iyakar Kenya, wadanda ke neman na sanyawa a bakin salati ta hanyar binciken duwarwatsun da kanfanin hako zinare na African Barrick Gold ya zubar daga tdsaunukan daya ke gudanar da aikinsa. Kanfanin na zama reshe ne na Barrick Gold da ke kasar Canada, wanda babban kanfanin zinare a duniya. Duk da cewar mazana kauyen - musamman matasa da kananan yara, na yin nasarar samun zinare daga dagwalon kanfanin, amma kuma sukan fuskanci muzgunawa daga jami'an 'yan sanda a galibin lokuta. Jummane,dan shekaru 20 a duniya, daya ne daga cikin wadanda ke cin gajiyar sharar da kanfanin ya zubar:

"Muna yin aiki a nan, amma duk da cewar mu ne ke mallakar wannan tsaunin, fararen fata da ke aiki anan na toshe mana hanyar kaiwa gareshi. Idan muka zo nan kuma, sai 'yan sanda su fatattake mu. Muna fama da wahalhalu, kuma matsala ce kawai muke fuskanta."

Matsananciyar rayuwa ga mazauna yankunan hako zinare

Jummane dai na samun kimanin kudi Schilling na Tanzaniya dubu 200 ne a kowane wata, wato kwatankwacin Euro 100, abinda kuma ya sanya shi a sahun farko cikin jerin wadanda ke samun kudin shiga sosai a yankin, duk da cewar akan yiwa mutane irinsa lakabi da suna masu kutse domin kuwa kanfanin Barrick ne ke mallakar tsaunin da suke zama akai - a hukumance, kuma saboda su na satar duwarwatsu daga mahakar ma'adanan don dubawa ko za su samu zinare a ciki.

Jami'an 'yan sanda ne uma ke gadin kayayyakin kanfanin a yankin na arewacin Mara, wadanda kuma a wasu lokutan ke habe wasu daga cikin mazauna yankin har lahira, wasu kuma su tsira da raunuka, ko jefa musu hayaki mai sa hawaye ko kuma albarusan roba. Hatta a shekara ta 2012, akalla mutane takwas ne suka mutu sakamakon tashin hankali tsakanin wadanda ake yiwa lakabi da masu kutse da kuma jami'an 'yan sanda a wuraren hako ma'adinai. Daya daga cikin mazauna yankin, ya ce ba za su taba bada kai bori ya hau ba a fafutukar neman abincin da suke yi:

"Kanfanin Barrick ba su damu da rayuwar mazauna yankunan da suke gudanar da ayyukan su ba, saboda haka ne ma 'yan sanda ke ta harbinmu kamar Karnuka. 'Yan sanda na zartar da umarnin da suka samu ne daga jami'an kanfanin Barrick."

Rawar da kanfanin Barrick ke takawa cikin harkar zinare

Sai dai a bayan tsaunin da masu kutsen ke yin wannan tsokacin, kanfanin hako ma'adinai na African Barrick Gold ne ke gudanar da ayyukan sa na hakar zinare. Tun kimanin shekaru 10 da suka gabata ne kanfanin ke gudanar da harkokin sa a yankin arewacin Mara na kasar Tanzaniya.

Joash Mageka, der Rektor der Ingwe Secondary School, die mit Geldern des Konzerns African Barrick Gold renoviert und erweitert wurde. *** Bilder Deutsche Welle, Julia Hahn, November 2012 Ort: Ingwe Sencondary School, nahe Nord Mara Goldmine, Nord Mara Region, Tansania *** http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Mara_Gold_Mine North Mara Gold Mine is an open pit gold mine in the Tarime District of the Mara Region of Tanzania. It is operated by African Barrick Gold. It is one of four gold mines African Barrick Gold, a subsidiary of Barrick Gold, operates in Tanzania, the other three being Tulawaka, Bulyanhulu and the Buzwagi Gold Mine. In the financial year 2009, the four operations produced a combined amount of 716,000 attributable ounces of gold.

Darektan Mahakar ma'adinai ta arewacin Mara, Joash Mageka

Saboda yawan shekarun da kanfanin ABG ya dauka a Tanzaniya, a yanzu yana da gudanar da ayyukan sa ne a wurare hudu a yankin arewacin Mara, kuma a cewar kanfanin 360 daga cikin ma'aikatansa - na kai tsaye, 'yan asalin yankin ne, yayin da wasu mazauna yankin fiye da 1,500 ke yin aiki amma ba kai tsaye ba tare da kanfanin.

Kanfanin, wanda a shekara ta 2011 ya samu kudin shiga dayaawan sa ya zarta Euro miliyan 200 daga zinaren daya sayar daga yankin arewacin Mara na kasar Tanzaniya kadai, ya ce samar da aikin yi ga mazauna kauyen kimanin mutane dubu 70, ba karamin aiki bane, domin kuwa a bisa al'ada sashen ma'adinai bai cika samar da dimbin aikin yi ga jama'a ba. Sai dai manajan kanfanin Gary Chapman, ya ce suna sauke hakkin mazauna yankin Mara daya rataya a wuyansu:

"Sannu a hankali, za mu ci gaba da bunkasa yarda da juna a tsakanin mu da mazauna kauyen. Akalla dai za su mutunta mu. Za mu so a kaunace mu to amma fa mutunta juna da kuma aiki tare ita ce hanyar da za ta kaimu ga samun haka."

Gudummowar kanfanin Barrick ga al'umar Tanzaniya

Domin cimma wannan burin yin aiki tare ne dai yasa daga shekara ta 2012, kamfanin Barrick Gold ya samar da sashen inganta danganta tare da al'umma a yanmkin Mara, wanda ke da ma'aikata maza da matan daya wansu yakai 17. Sukan yi rangadin yankin, tare da tuntubar al'umma da kuma dattijai a yankin, tare da sanya ido akan ayyukan raya kasa da su ka gudanar.

Kanfanin Barrick, na cike da alfahari game da rawar daya taka wajen inganta makarantar da ake kira Ingwe, wadda ke kusa da wurin da take hako ma'adinai a yankin Mara.

A shekara ta 2012 ne dai Kanfanin ABG ya gyara ajujuwan makarantar da suka la'la'ce, tare da wani wurin cin abinci, yayin da wasu kanfanonin da ke hada hada a yankin kuma ke sake gina wasu makarantun bisa abinda suka ce hakan na taimakawa sama da aikin yi ga al'umma.

Shugaban makarantar Ingwe Joash Mageka wanda ke sanye da tufafin Kwat, ya yaba da namijin kokarin da kanfanonin hako ma'adinai a yanin suka yi:

"Ina farin ciki sosai domin kuwa makaratar ta sauya sosai. Tana da kyau gani. Hakan ya rage adadin daliban da ke zuwa wurare hako ma'adinai domin neman zinare daga duwarwatsun da kanfanoni ke zubarwa. Ko da shike akwai wadanda ke zuwa can - har yanzu, amma muna kokarin ilimantar da su game da muhimmancin Ilimi, da kuma yanda zai taimaka musu shawo kan matsalolin su a nan gaba

Inganta harkokin Ilimi a Tanzaniya

Kanfanin hako mako ma'adinai na ABG na daukar ayyukan sake gina makarantun a matsayin alamar ci gaba ne ga yankin. Tun a shekara ta 2010, kanfanin yya yi ikirarin kashe kudin daya zarta dalar Amirka miliyan 20 wajen samar da ababen inganta rayuwar al'umma. Ko da shike hakan bai kai kaso daya cikin 100 na kudaden shigar daya samu daga yankin ba, amma galibin kudin ya tafi ne a yankin Mara. Zakayo Kalebo, da ke shugabanta sashen yada labarai a kanfanin na African Barrick Gold ko kuma ABG ya ce a zahiri, akwai ci gaba a tsakanin al'ummar yankin:

"Kamar yanda kake gani an sami karuwar gidaje da motoci da kuma babura. Saboda haka jama'a na farin ciki game da harkokin ma'adinai, domin an sami ci gaba mai ma'ana sakamakon bullar ma'adinai. Ba haka lamarin yake ba gabannin gano a'adinan."

Matsayin rayuwar 'yan Tanzaniya gabannin gano zinare

A shekarun baya dai ko da shike mazauna yankunan na hada hadar zinare, amma kawai domin samun na sanyawa a bakin salati ne kawai. Bayan zuwan manyan kanfanoni a shekarun 1990, da wuya mutum ya ga kananan kanfanonin da ke harkar:

Sospeter Muhongo, Minister für Energie und Mineralien in seinem Büro *** Bilder Deutsche Welle, Julia Hahn, November 2012 Ort: Ministry of Energy and Minerals, Daressalam, Tansania *** http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Mara_Gold_Mine North Mara Gold Mine is an open pit gold mine in the Tarime District of the Mara Region of Tanzania. It is operated by African Barrick Gold. It is one of four gold mines African Barrick Gold, a subsidiary of Barrick Gold, operates in Tanzania, the other three being Tulawaka, Bulyanhulu and the Buzwagi Gold Mine. In the financial year 2009, the four operations produced a combined amount of 716,000 attributable ounces of gold.

Ministan makamashin Tanzaniya, Sospeter Muhongo

Rahotanni na cewa kashi saba'in cikin dari na jam'ar wajen nan kan samu kudi daga cinikin wadannan duwarwatsu ba bisa ka'ida ba. Wannan matashin mai suna David Arumba ya zo nan ne daga Kenya inda ya ke wanke babura da motoci don samun kudin kashewa:

"A nan yankin akwai babura da motoci da yawa. A kowacce rana ina samun isassun kudi. Galibin mutanen nan na da kudi da yawa saboda su na son rayuwar hutu."

Yanayin rayuwa a birnin Dar es-Salam

Dar es-Salaam dai shi ne birni mafi girma a Tansania kuma fadar gwamnati, kuma mahukunta sun bukaci kamfanonin da ke tonon zinare da su rika raba wani kaso na ribar da su ke samu da mazauna yankunan da ake tonon zinaren, wannan ma shi ya sa gwamnati ta kara wa kamfanonin haraji, batun da ministan makamashi a kasar Sospeter Muhongo, ya ce yanzu haka ya na taimakawa:

"Mu na kokari kuma ba za mu gajiya ba. Za mu yi kokarin tabB atar da zaman lafiya da tsaro a yankin. Daya daga cikin hanyoyin samar da tsaro da zaman lafiya ita ce maida hankali kan ilimi. Ina ganin idan su ka yi ilimi sosai tunaninsu zai sauya."

Watsi da sana'oi bayan gano zinare

Kafin sauyin tunanin dai manoma da wasu malaman makaranta da ma masu wasu sana'oi da dama ne suka yi watsi da ayyukansu domin sarrafa duwarwatsu da nufin samun zinare a yankunan da kanfanoni ke hako ma'adinai irin Mara a kasar Tanzaniya, domin kuwa ko da zinare karami ne mutum ya samu, to, kuwa zai samar masa kudi mai yawa a yanayin rayuwar kasar.

Mawallafi : Saleh Umar Saleh
Edita : Mohammad Nasiru Awal

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