Tarihin rikicin tawaye a Mali | Amsoshin takardunku | DW | 19.02.2013
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Amsoshin takardunku

Tarihin rikicin tawaye a Mali

Daga samun 'yancin kan ƙasar Mali a shekara 1960 zuwa yanzu, ta yi fama da rikicin tawaye huɗu

Tawayen farko a Mali ya ɓarke a shekara 1963 wato shekaru uku bayan samun mulkin kai.A lokaci Modibo Keita ke jagoranta ƙasar.

saidai ko kamin nan tun a shekara 1958 suka girka wata ƙungiyar da suka raɗawa suna MPA a Kidal dake arewacin Mali tare ada kwaɗayin Faransa za ta aiyanar da yankin da abzinawa suke ciki a mtsayin ƙasa mai cikkaken 'yancin to saidai hakan ba ta samu ba.An yi ta samun sabanin tsakanin jogororin wannan ƙungiya da gwamnatin Mali, dake ɗaukar su a matsayin masu tada zaune tsaye cikin ƙasa.

Akwai ma lokacin da 'yan tawaye na MPA suka aika tawaga a ƙasar Aljeriya wajen shugaban Ahmed Ben Bella,domin Aljeriya ta shiga tsakani, yo daga nan gwamnatin Aljeriya ta cafke su ta ɗamka su ga hukumomin Mali.Har dai lokacin da Modibo Keita ya sauka daga kujerar mulki a Mali a shekara 1968 babu daɗi tsakanin abzinawa da gwamnatin tsakiya ta birnin Bamako.

Hawan Moussa Traoré al'amura suka ƙara taɓarɓarewa duk da cewar da farkon mulkin ya yi afuwa ga mutanen da aka cafke wanda suka jagorancin tawayen abzinawa na shekara 1963.

Abzinawan Mali sun shiga tawaye karo na biyu a shekara 1990, tare da wata ƙungiyar tawaye da Iyyad Ag Ghali wanda a yanzu shine jaogoran ƙungiyar Ansar Dine ta Mali,ya girka a shekara 1988 mai suna MPLA.Wannan ƙungiya ta fara kai hari a garuruwan Menaka da Tidermene, saidai sojojin Mali su ka nuna masu ba sani ba sabo, a yunƙurin murƙushe wannan bori da 'yan tawayen Mali suka tada.

Amma wannan mataki na ba sani ba sabo bai ci nasara kauda rikicin tawayen ba gaba daya, saboda haka hukumomin Bamako suka hango cewar hawa teburin shawara shine ya fi dacewa maimakon amfani da tsinin bindiga.An yi zaman farko a shekara 1990 a Djanet cikin ƙasar Alejriya tare da shugabanin ƙasashen Mali Nijar, Libiya da kuma Aljeriya da wakilai 'yan tawayen.Kwana ta shi har aka yi nasara kaiwa ga yarjejeniyar tsagaita wuta da raɗawa suna yarejejeniyar Tamanrasset, inda haɗin gwiwar ƙungiyoyin tawaye ta MFUA Mouvement des Fronts Unifiés de l´Azawad, da kuma gwamnatin Mali suka rattabawa hannu.

Gwamnatin Moussa Traoré ta faɗi a shekara 1991,sabin hukumomin sun ci gaba da tattanawa da 'yan tawayen inda suka yi nasara rattaba hannu akan wata sabuwar yajejeniya a shekara 1992, wadda itama ta yi tanadin sabin hanyoyin samar da zaman lafiya mai ɗorewa.Har ma gwamnati ta amince ta saka tsafin 'yan tawaye cikin rundunar soja ta ƙasa, kuma aka shirya wani gagaramin biki da aka raɗawa suna bikin ƙona makamai, kokuma Flammes de la Paix, an yi wannan biki a birnin Tombouctou a watan Maris na shekara 1996.To saida wannan mataki bai hana 'yan tawayen Mali ba komawa filin daga.Sun tada saban bore a shekara a 2006, wanda shima a ka tattana aka kuma samu mafita.

Rikicin tawaye na baya-bayan nan shine wanda ƙungiyar MNLA ta tada a shekara 2011wanda a cikin sa ya aiyanar da yankin Azawad a matsayin ƙasa mai cikkaken 'yancin kuma a wannan karo rikicin na tawaye ya ƙara yi muni dalili da shigowar ƙungiyoyi masu tsatsauran kishin addinin Islama, kamar su Ansar Dine, Mujao da AQMI.

Ka ga dai kenan a taƙaice irin rikicin tawayen da aka ta yi fuskanta ƙasar Mali.Wanda ake ciki yanzu na ƙungiyar MNLA ƙasar Faransa wadda ta taimakawa Mali da kuma ƙungiyar ECOAS sun shawarci hukumomin Bamako su shiga tattanawa da shugabanin wannan ƙungiya.

Rattaba hannu kan yarjeniyoyi domin shawo kan rikicin tawaye a ƙasar ya zama tamkar tumƙa da walwala

Mahimmin dalili shine rashin cika alƙawura tsakanin ɓangarori biyu da ke rattabawa yarjejeniyoyin hannu.

Mauretanische Armee Terrorbekämfung in der Sahara Eingestellt November 2009 Exklusive DW-Rechte/ Autor ist unser Korrespondent in Mauritanien Mohamed Mahmoud Aboumaaly Mohamed Mahmoud Aboumaaly

Sannan akwai saɓanin ra'aoyi tsakanin ƙungiyoyin tawayen abzinawa, domin akasari sai an zauna an cimma yarjejeniya amma kuma wani ɓangare ya burjune mata.

Sai kuma ɗaurin gindi da aka zargin wasu ƙasashe maƙwafta suna ba 'yan tawaye.So da yawa gwamnatin Mali ta sha zargin ƙasashen Aljeriya, Mauritaniya da Libiya zamanin mulkin marigayi Mohammad Khadafi da bada taimakon makamai ga 'yan tawaye.

Sannan al'umar Mali da dama na zargin Faransa da bada haɗin kai ga 'yan tawaye, kamar misali da ake ciki yanzu haka game da ƙungiyar tawayen MNLA.Wasu kenan daga cikin dalilan da suka sa har yanzu aka kasa shawo kan rikicin tawaye a ƙasar Mali.

Mawallafi: Yahouza Sadissou Madobi
Edita: Umaru Aliyu