Nelson Mandela ya yi jagoranci nagari | Tushen Afirka: mutanen da suka taka rawa a tarihin Afirka | DW | 18.07.2018
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Tushen Afirka

Nelson Mandela ya yi jagoranci nagari

Nelson Mandela ya fito daga kurkuku bayan shekaru 27 don kwatar 'yanci daga fararen fata da ke mulki a Afirka ta Kudu. Ya zama bakar fata na farko shugaban Afirka ta Kudu kuma ya samu lambar Nobel.

Lokacin da inda Nelson Mandela ya rayu?

An haife shi a cikin yankin Transkei da ke cike da tsaunuka a Afirka ta Kudu a shekarar 1918, kafin Mandela ya ci gaba da karatu a fannin doka a jami'ar Fort Hare da ke gabashin Cape. A shekarar 1944, ya shiga African National Congress, wata jam'iyyar siyasa da aka kafa don yaki da wariyar launin fata da gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu da ta kunshi farar fata zalla ke aiwatarwa. Ba da dadewa ba ne wannan tsari ya sauya zuwa na Apartheid, lamarin da ya sa Mandela ya sauya salon doguwar gwagwarmayarsa. A matsayinsa na bakar fatar farko shugaban Afrika ta Kudu, ya yi ritaya bayan shekara biyar na mulki. Nelson Mandela ya rasu a ranar 5 ga watan Disamba na 2013, yana da shekaru 95.

 

Mene ne Nelson Mandela ya shahara a kai?

Nelson Mandela ya kafa reshen soja na jam'iyyar ANC da aka fi sani da suna Umkhonto mu Sizwe (Mashi na kasa) domin kalubalantar gwamnatin da manufofinta na wariyar launin fata. Lokacin da aka tuhumeshi da zagon kasa da kuma yunkurin kifar da gwamnatin a shekarar 1964, an yanke masa hukuncin daurin rai da rai a tsibirin Robben Island, inda ya kwashe shekaru 27 yana daure. Bayan an sake shi a 1990, Mandela ya zama bakar fata na farko shugaban kasar Afirka ta Kudu a shekarar 1994.

 

Yaya Nelson Mandela ya tsira daga kurkuku?

Mandela ya zama abin misali ga mutane da dama domin duk da cewa ya shafe shekaru a kurkuku, amma dogon tunaninsa da hangen nesansa sun keta katangar gidan na yari. Shekarun da ya shafe a kurkuku ba su karya masa gwiwa ba, amma sun dada kara masa azamar gwagwarmayar neman 'yanci da ya sa a gaba. Mawaka dabam-dabam da suka rera wakokin kyamar wariyar launin fata sun yi kira da a saki Nelson Mandela , ciki har da Johnny Clegg & Savuka karkashin wakar "Asimbonanga".

 

Mene ne Nelson Mandela ya fi girmamawa?

Duk da shekaru na wahala da kuma zaman kurkuku, Mandela bai taba canza akidarsa ta samun zaman lafiya da daidaito tsakanin al'umma a Afirka ta Kudu ba da kuma rawar da yake takawa a cikin kasarsa ba. Ya yi imani da tsarin mulkin dimukaradiyya da ke bai wa kowa da kowa 'yancin yin zabe. Ya jagoranci Afrika ta Kudu na tsawon shekaru hudu, amma sabanin yawancin takwarorinsa shugabannin Afrika, ya sauka daga karagar mulki, lamarin da ya mutunta tsarin dimukaradiyya na bai wa 'yan kasar damar su zabi shugaban kasarsu na gaba.

Ya samu lambar yabo ta Nobel a shekarar 1993 tare da hadin gwiwar shugaban Afirka ta Kudu na wannan lokaci, FW de Klerk. Dama De Klerk ne ya saki Mandela daga gidan yari, kuma tare suka yi aiki don 'yantar da Afirka ta Kudu daga mulkin wariyar launin fata.

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Nelson Mandela dan gwagwarmayar kwatar 'yancin kan Afirka ta Kudu

Wadanne maganganun Mandela aka fi sani?

Da yake jawabi a shari'arsa a shekarar 1964: "Na yi yaki da mamayar farar fata, kuma na yi yaki da mamayar bakar fata. Na yi imani da tsarin rayuwa da aka dora kan tafarkin dimukaradiyya duk mutane za su zauna tare cikin jituwa, kuma a daidaita damar da suke da ita. Wannan ita ce manufar da nake fatan in rayu don ita, kuma in gani ta yiwu. Amma mai shari'a, idan ta dauro, wannan ita ce manufa wadda a shirye nake na mutu a kai."

"Ko da yaushe akwai alamar ba zai yiwu ba har sai an aikata shi."

"Ilimi shi ne makami mafi girma wanda za ka iya amfani da shi domin canja duniya."

"Na koyi cewa karfin hali ba wai rashin tsoro ba ne, amma samun rinjaye ne a kanshi. Jarumi ba wanda bai jin tsoro ba ne, amma wanda ya rinjayeshi ne."

 

Mene ne Nelson Mandela ya bari a matsayin gado?

Ga matasan Afrika ta Kudu, Nelson Mandela ya bar wata wasiyya ta sadaukar da kai da kuma yin yaki tukuru domin samun daidaiton 'yanci tsakanin al'umma. Burinsa na wata kasar Afirka ta Kudu inda bakaken fata da fararen fata za su iya rayuwa daidai ba tare da bambanci ba. Amma karkashin shugabancinsa an yi nasarar rungumar wannan akida a fannin siyasa, duk da cewar tana da wuyar aiwatarwa.

 

Wannan bangare ne na shiri na musamman Tushen Afirka "African Roots", shirin hadin gwiwa tsakanin tashar DW da Gidauniyar Gerda Henkel.

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