The Russian boycott affects Turkish tourism, construction firms - and food exports. Russia has banned the import of Turkish fruit and vegetables - and Turkish farmers are feeling the pinch.
Washington is expected to impose fresh penalties against Russia for its alleged meddling in the 2016 US presidential vote. Those sanctions would primarily target Russia's financial institutions - key to the country's massive arms export business worth billions of euros and therefore crucial for the Russian economy.
Trade between Russia and Germany has increased by about a quarter in the past 12 months. The surge came despite sanctions which the European Union imposed against Moscow for its alleged role in the Ukraine conflict.
A confidential memo has revealed Pyongyang flouted UN sanctions on exports of a wide range of goods. Germany has alleged that North Korea is using its Berlin embassy to buy equipment for its weapons program.
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