马三家揭开中国劳教黑幕 | 德国之声 来自德国 介绍德国 | DW | 24.04.2013
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时政风云

马三家揭开中国劳教黑幕

人权组织对中国劳教机构中违反人道的现象一再提出批评,但苦于拿不出证据。最近,媒体曝光辽宁一个劳教所的在押人员常年受到虐待和刑讯,但官方予以否认。记者与几名曾被关押在该劳教所的“犯人”进行了交谈。

--FILE--A Chinese inmate walks past beds in a room at a female labor camp in Jurong city, east Chinas Jiangsu province, 6 March 2008. Meng Jianzhu, who became secretary of the Political and Legal Affairs Committee in November, said at a national law and order work conference that the re-education through labour, or laojiao, system would be halted after the move was rubber-stamped by the National Peoples Congress in March. The remarks were first reported by the bureau chief of the Legal Daily, the Justice Ministrys official mouthpiece, and were picked up by state media outlets. An official who attended the event confirmed Mengs comments. But state media sent mixed signals about the policy. A Xinhua report on the conference said only that authorities had pledged to reform the system, and some analysts noted that Meng spoke of halting rather than abolishing the laojiao system. pixel

China Arbeitslager Umerziehungslager für Frauen Insassin

(德国之声中文网)辽宁马三家劳教所在一般的地图上几乎找不到。但附近村庄的居民都知道它的存在。这是田野边一座白色的四层楼建筑,被高墙和铁丝网包围。大门口的牌子上写着"辽宁女子劳动教养所"。曾经在这里的高墙后度日的人,身心都留下了痛苦的印记。一位50多岁的女性回忆道:

"给我分配到二大队,刚分配下队的当天,就遭到毒打。两侧的脸、耳朵、太阳穴、胳膊、腿腹部,电棍嗞嗞地冒火星。最少有20分钟。打得我哭天唤地地喊叫。"

我们采访的几位女性曾在2003年到2011年间,在不同时间段内被关押在马三家劳教所。其中另一位女性告诉记者,那里的犯人受到多种酷刑。比如"坐老虎凳"、"绑死人床","上大挂"--"就是悬空吊,脚尖不沾地,吊在双人床上层的栏杆上,拿布条固定。怕你蹬他,还在我腿上绑了一个板儿,这样你就蹬不了他。放下来的时候,我都不知道,昏了。"

"一个伤害人自尊的过程"

劳教所里的劳动也异常艰苦。每周7天,每天从早上6点半直到深夜。按规定每个劳教人员每个月应得到约合1.2欧元的报酬,但她们经常拿不到一分钱。一名曾被劳教的原税务局工作人员说:"不完成任务不能睡觉,他定的定量基本上没有人能完成。"

--FILE--A Chinese police officer escorts inmates at a female labor camp in Jurong city, east Chinas Jiangsu province, 6 March 2008. Meng Jianzhu, who became secretary of the Political and Legal Affairs Committee in November, said at a national law and order work conference that the re-education through labour, or laojiao, system would be halted after the move was rubber-stamped by the National Peoples Congress in March. The remarks were first reported by the bureau chief of the Legal Daily, the Justice Ministrys official mouthpiece, and were picked up by state media outlets. An official who attended the event confirmed Mengs comments. But state media sent mixed signals about the policy. A Xinhua report on the conference said only that authorities had pledged to reform the system, and some analysts noted that Meng spoke of halting rather than abolishing the laojiao system. pixel

“自尊被伤害的过程”(江苏句容女子劳教所)

她们的任务是缝制服装、汽车靠垫或制作万圣节的装饰品。是供应中国市场还是出口,女工们并不知道。她们只知道,如果来了大的订单,她们有时得干通宵。利用"现成"的劳动力显然是劳教所创收的途径。在马三家女子劳教所不远处还有一个关押男性的规模较小的劳教所。一位2011年被释放的男子说,在那里虐待犯人也是家常便饭。"劳教的过程实际是一个伤害人自尊的过程。他认为你已经是人民的敌人了,所以他不把你当人看待。在那里头就是一切都要服从。"

过去10年,马三家劳教所关押了不少法轮功信徒,此外还有小偷小摸等有轻微违法行为的人,吸毒成瘾的人和不听劝阻的上访者,多的时候人数曾达到5000人。

个例还是冰山一角?

4月初,财讯传媒旗下的《Lens.视觉》杂志首先在网上发表了披露马三家劳教所的报道,但很快就被审查部门删除。然而文章在公众中引发的愤怒迫使有关部门作出表态。《法制日报》发表文章称,辽宁省组成调查组对有关指责进行了调查,结论是有关报道"严重失实",文中引述的虐待劳教人员及使用酷刑问题是"恶意捏造和无中生有"。此外,马三家女子劳教所在"保障劳教人员合法权益,包括伙食标准、医疗标准、劳动时间和适当付予劳动报酬等多方面,均达到司法部规定,不存在违规问题。"

对向记者讲述了亲身经历的曾经的劳教人员来说,这不啻是莫大的嘲讽。之前他们看到中国舆论已经开始讨论改革、甚至废除劳教制度的问题,因此鼓起勇气向国内外媒体吐露。但现在他们担心自己会因为大胆直言受到惩罚。至少其中一名被采访者,已被警察多次登门。据估计中国共有300个劳教所。维权律师们提出的问题是:马三家只是一个极端的个例,还是巨大冰山的一角。

作者:ARD 编译:叶宣

责编:石涛

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