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Turjiyar mulkin mallaka a Gabashin Afirka

April 2, 2024

A Gabashin Afrika da yankin Great Lakes, ‘yan mulkin mallaka na Jamus sun yi nasara a kan yunƙurin turjiya daga ƙungiyoyin mazauna yankin inda suke tunkarar rundunar ‘yan mulkin mallaka marasa tausayi, ga manyan makamai.

https://p.dw.com/p/4eL5v
Mulkin mallaka na Jamus
Mulkin mallaka na JamusHoto: Comic Republic

Me Ya Sa Jamus Take Iƙrarin Mallakar Ƙasa a Gabashin Afrika?

Da farko, Zaman Jamus a Gabashin Afrika ya taƙaita ne ga mallakar ƙasa daga ɗaiɗaikun ‘yan mulkin mallaka irin su Carl Peters. A Taron Berlin na shekarar 1885, Jamus ta yi iƙirarin mallakar yankuna a wurin da a yau ake kira Tanzaniya da Ruwanda da Burundi, wanda hakan ya ba su damar kafawa da kula da kuma kare hanyoyin kasuwanci.

Ta yaya ‘Yan Mulkin Mallakar Jamus suka zama Mugaye?

A shekarar 1888, An kai hari ga matsugunin Jamus da ke gaɓar Gabashin Afrika a lokacin Abushiri ko Tayawen Larabawa. Wannan wata gamayya ce a gaɓar Tekun Suwahili, wadda take da alaƙa da Shugaban Yankin Abushiri bin Salim al Harth, wanda ba ya son Jamus ta yi barazana ga hanyoyin kasuwancinsu da suke samun riba da cinikin hauren giwa da na bayi. Wani rashin sa’a da aka yi, sai Jamus ta amince da amfani da makamai da bindigogi a matsayin wata hanya ta kawar da cinikin bayi. A zahiri da ma, ana yin amfani da makamai da sojoji wajen kare muradun Jamus.

Dakarum mulkin mallaka na Jamus
Dakarum mulkin mallaka na JamusHoto: Comic Republic

Shin Jamus ta jibge sojoji?

Tun da farko, Rundunar Kariyar Mulkin Mallakar nan da ake kira Schutztruppe, wadda ɗan ta'addan nan, wato Wissmann Truppe, ya qirqiro, wadda kuma Hermann von Wissmann, yake shugabanta, ta kai farmaki a Gabashin Afrika da makamai na zamani kamar bindigogin nan samfurin Maxim masu sarrafa kansu. Sai dai kuma rashin gaskiya ya yi katutu a cikin sha'anin, kuma ba jami'an sojin Jamus ba ne a hukumance, tun da yawancin mambobinsu sojojin haya ne ‘yan Afrika – waɗanda aka fi sani da Askarawa. Waɗannan mutane, a ƙarƙashin jagorancin wasu jami’ai daga Jamus, sun yi kashe-kashen da ya nuna irin mulkin Jamus a Gabashin Afrika. Sun kashe mutane ta hanyar rataya da yin fyaɗe da kuma ƙwace da ya biyo baya, kuma a shekarar 1890, yankin gaɓar Gabashin Afrika ya dawo ƙarƙashin ikon Jamus.

A lokacin sai ‘yan mulkin mallaka suka bincika cikin ƙasa ta wajen tafkin Tanganyika, inda suka gamu da turjiya, mai ƙarfi. Wataƙila ba wani ba ne ban da shahararren sarkin WaHehe, wato Mkwawa.

Mkwawa na Tanzaniya
MkwawaHoto: Carola Frentzen/dpa/picture alliance

Wane ne Sarki Mkwawa?

Shi ne sarkin mutanen Hehe da suke zaune a yankin Iringa na ƙasar Tanzaniya a yau. Mkwawa ɗan siyasa ne mai wayo, kuma ƙwararren masanin dabarun yaƙi ne, wataƙila ma ya nuna waɗannan dabaru yadda ya kamata a yaƙin da suka yi da Kwamandan mulkin mallaka na Jamus, Emil Zelewski, wanda wasu masana tarihi suke ganin shi ne ya kunna wutar Tawayen Larabawa na 1888. An ɗora wa Zelewski nauyin lalata Hehe, sai ya yi amfani da dabarun ƙone-ƙone: yana ƙona gonaki da kisa da kashe dabbobi.

Dakarun Hehe, ɗauke da masu da ‘yan bindigogi sun yi wa dakarun Zelewski ƙawanya, suka kashe da yawa daga cikinsu, har da Zelewskin, a shekarar 1891. Wannan wata faɗuwa ce da kunyata da ‘yan mulkin mallakar Jamus ba za su manta da ita ba. Kuma duk da cewa mutanen Hehe sun yi yaƙin sunƙuru ne, daga baya an yi wa Mkwawa ƙawanya kafin daga baya ya kashe kansa a yankin Iringa a shekarar 1898. Saboda tsanar da ‘yan mulkin mallakar Jamus suka yi wa Mkwawa sai da suka kai kansa Jamus bayan da ya kashe kan nasa.

Me ya faru ga Mangi Meli?

Mangi Meli, sarkin Chagga daga yankin tsaunin Kilimanjaro, shi ma an kai masa hari kuma aka tilasta masa da ya miƙa wuya. An rataye shi tare da wasu manyan mutanen Chaga a shekarar 1900 bayan da aka zarge su da cin amanar ƙasa. Wannan kisan ba kawai tsarin shugabancin wurin ya lalata ba, abin ya ci gaba da munana har ya kai, lokacin da shugabannin mulkin mallaka na Jamus suka yanke kan Mangi Meli suka aika da ƙoƙon kansa zuwa Berlin, wai da sunan binciken kimiyya a kan mutane da launin fata. Har zuwa yau, ana ajiye da ƙoƙon kan Mangi Meli a gidan adana tarihi na Jamus.

Wane yaƙi ne yaƙin Maji Maji?

A shekarar 1905, sama da garuruwa 20 suka haɗu a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Kinjeketile Ngwale, suka tashi don su yaƙi baƙin mulkin Jamus na karɓar haraji da tilasta aikin ƙwadago. Kinjekitile ya kasance mutum ne mai yawan kawo ruɗani, saboda ya taɓa bayar da wata fatawa cewa mayaƙa na gida za su iya korar ‘yan mulkin mallaka, kuma idan suka sha wani jiƙon magani, zai mayar da harsashin ‘yan mulkin mallaka ya koma kamar ruwa. Wannan shi ne ya haifar da tawayen Maji Maji, ko da yake wasu masana tarihin suna cewa fatawar Kinjeketile ta zo ne a lokacin da ya zama mutanen wurin ba su da wani zaɓi sai na su yi wa mulkin Jamus tawaye.

A yayin da a farkon yaƙin aka kashe wasu Jamusawa ‘yan mishan da mazauna wurin sai tawayen Maji Maji ya zama wani babban abu da jami’an mulkin mallaka suka ɗauki matakin yin hukunci a kai. Kinjeketile ma an kashe shi a shekarar 1905.

Amma duk da cewa Kinjeketile ya mutu, sai Schutztruppe ya ci gaba da aiwatar da dabarun ƙone-ƙone da kisa da kuma ta’addanci a Gabashin Afrika, kuma da gangan aka shiya abin ya kasance a haka.

Tawayen ya ci gaba har zuwa shekarar 1907, kuma ya yi sanadiyyar rasa rayuka sama da mutum 120 000, wani ƙiyasin ma ya kai adadin zuwa 300 000, waɗanda da yawa sun mutu ne saboda yunwa da cututtuka.

DW ce ta shirya shirin Illolin Mulkin Mallakar Jamus, Ofishin Kula da Harkokin Waje na Jamus (AA) ne ya ɗauki nauyi. Ƙwararru a ɓangaren tarihi da aka tuntuɓa su ne:

Lily Mafela da Farfesa Kwame Osei Kwarteng da Reginald Kirey.