Take a look at the beta version of dw.com. We're not done yet! Your opinion can help us make it better.
Sheriff Tiraspol from breakaway Moldovan region Trans-Dniester, or Transnistria, have had the perfect start to their debut Champions League campaign. Sheriff's name offers a clue to their murky but successful past.
Technically speaking, Sheriff Tiraspol are the first-ever representatives of the Republic of Moldova in the Champions League.
But while UEFA, and indeed the broader international community, officially consider the city of Tiraspol to be Moldovan, most inhabitants would insist that it is the capital of Trans-Dniester, or Transnistria.
However, after beginning their debut Champions League campaign with improbable back-to-back victories against Shakhtar Donetsk and now 13-time European champions Real Madrid, the debate has faded into the background.
Nevermind Moldova, nevermind Transnistria - Sheriff are officially in dreamland.
A narrow strip of land measuring 400 kilometers from north to south between the Dniester river and Moldova's eastern border with Ukraine, Trans-Dniester — also known as Transnistria — is a self-proclaimed and internationally unrecognized breakaway state – population: 450,000.
Since declaring its independence from Moldova following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 and a short but bloody war in 1992, an ongoing cease-fire has seen Trans-Dniester leading an isolated existence with its own government, flag, military, currency and postal service.
And now, after Sheriff Tiraspol followed up qualification wins over Red Star Belgrade (2-1 on aggregate) and Dinamo Zagreb (3-0) with group stage wins over Shakhtar (2-0) and Real Madrid (2-1), it has its own Champions League football team, too.
"I never believed that Moldovan football would ever have a team in the Champions League group stage," Gavril Balint, a European Cup winner with Steaua Bucharest in 1986 who coached Sheriff Tiraspol for one season in 2002-03, told DW.
"But they have proved their worth over four very tough [qualifying] games. It's a huge achievement."
An achievement not just for current coach Yuriy Vernydub, himself from neighboring Ukraine, and his players but, like anything else which happens in Trans-Dniester, an achievement for Sheriff Ltd. – the shadowy corporation which dominates almost every aspect of life in the region.
Precise information about Sheriff is hard to come by. Founded by former Soviet security agents – ex-KGB according to German weekly Die Zeit – Viktor Gushan and Ilya Kazmaly in June 1993, the company owns supermarkets, petrol stations, construction companies, hotels, a mobile phone network, bakeries, a distillery and television and radio channels in the region, and also has close ties to the ruling Obnovlenie ("Renewal") political party, which has had a majority on the Supreme Council since 2005.
"Sheriff is a central institution in the country," explains Sabine von Löwis of the Center for East European and International Studies (ZOiS) in Berlin, who has spent time researching in Trans-Dniester. "They don't just finance the football club; they effectively control the country economically and politically."
Originally founded as Tiras Tiraspol before being renamed and rebranded, "FC Sheriff" have since won 19 Moldovan league titles and 10 cups. They've featured in the Europa League on four occasions and are now the first "Moldovan" club to reach the Champions League group stage.
Opened in 2002, the Sheriff Stadium in Tiraspol isn't just the most modern stadium in Trans-Dniester, but in all of Moldova, so much so that the Moldovan national team regularly plays home games in a region that has effectively broken away from the country.
Balint arrived in Tiraspol just as the stadium and surrounding complex became operational and has fond memories of his year there — at least in terms of football.
"My experience at Sheriff was positive. The training camp was extraordinary, the conditions very good with six training pitches and three stadiums," he tells DW. "I had a large office with all the equipment I needed to analyze games and prepare the team. We created a strong side with a combination of good transfers and some talents from the youth team."
His predecessor, fellow Romanian Mihai Stoichita, was less impressed, reportedly quitting because Sheriff founder and owner Gushan had fired two players without the coach's consent.
Balint, however, speaks well of Gushan, insisting: "He's a very intelligent man. I would meet him every week after games to analyze games and discuss any problems. He used to invite me to have lunch and we had a great relationship. He liked people to speak to him directly, to tell him whatever they had on their mind.
"The others around him in the club weren't that talkative, you could still sense the communist vibes. They were very humble people and wouldn't speak badly of their bosses."
Old habits die hard in Trans-Dniester. During the Soviet Union, the region had been of great industrial importance to Moscow, being only 100 kilometers from the Black Sea port of Odesa and favorably located on the Dniester river. Russian had also become the dominant language.
The Soviet legacy endures in 2021, with an estimated 60% of the region's economy controlled by Sheriff – and, by extension, the state – and with around 1,500 Russian troops stationed in the region as guarantors of the 1992 cease-fire between Moldova and Trans-Dniester separatists.
"There are certainly political links to Russia, also in education and in many aspects of the economy," says von Löwis. "But many younger people are just as Europe-orientated, so it will be interesting to see how that develops in future and what political effect that could have."
Indeed, Trans-Dniester companies like textiles manufacturer Tirotex and distillery Kvint export to the European Union as much as Russia, taking advantage of an association agreement between Moldova and the EU that has existed since 2016. But other businesses are less reputable and, with Moldova unable to control its own eastern border, smuggling and corruption are rife.
Furthermore, a 2020 US Department of State report listed arbitrary arrest, forced disappearance, torture and serious restrictions on freedom of movement among a long list of human rights abuses observed in Trans-Dniester, conditions which are at risk of being glossed over by FC Sheriff's participation in the Champions League.
"Maybe the Champions League will increase international attention," says von Löwis. "But it could also be a chance for Sheriff to present itself as a charitable, philanthropic organization which promotes sport, covering up its monopoly in politics and the economy and the lack of democracy through sportswashing."
With further group games against European giants Real Madrid and Inter Milan to come, Sheriff couldn't have wished for a more prominent platform upon which to present themselves to the world.
There is no mention of Trans-Dniester's unique political situation on UEFA's website, which prefers to extol the virtues of Sheriff's "multinational squad," including Greek goalkeeper Georgios Athanasiadis, Brazilian fullbacks Cristiano and Fernando Constanza, Ghanaian midfielder Edmund Addo and Colombian striker and captain, Frank Castaneda.
It's a far cry from Gavril Balint's champions in 2002-03, when the most "exotic" foreign imports were from nearby Romania.
"It was always the owner's dream to play in the Champions League but, looking back, the team that I coached couldn't have qualified," he admits. "There was even an idea to move the team to Ukraine in order to face stronger clubs and transfer better players, but that didn't happen.
"Now, the quality has improved. They have bought Brazilians, Portuguese, many internationals, many Latin players with good technique and different qualities."