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Introducing the mixed methods design developed to assess the Media and Information Literacy of 15-to-35-year-olds in six African countries.
The MIL INDEX study in Africa is based on a mixed methods design. Three techniques were employed and triangulated to arrive at the results presented in the country reports: focus groups, key informant interviews and representative surveys. All methods were guided by DW Akademie’s MIL model which subdivides Media and Information Literacy (MIL) into five dimensions: access, analysis, reflection, creation and action (see concept article for details). This article goes into more detail on the individual methods. Please note that we have also attached Excel files with key findings of the quantitative data for Burkina Faso, Ghana and Kenya below this methods introduction.
In each of the six African countries involved, eight focus groups were conducted with adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 35 years. Four focus groups took place in rural or peri-urban settings, while the other four were conducted in urban centers. The groups were also differentiated by age, with the younger teenagers taking part in separate discussions from their older counterparts. The focus group guides were refined with DW Akademie’s country teams and market research partners. There was a strong focus on interaction and tasks to supplement the verbal discussions taking place. The participants also filled in an accompanying questionnaire. The focus group guide was structured as follows:
In total, 421 youths took part in 48 focus groups.
Key Informant Interviews
Awo Aidam Amenyah, CEO of Child Online Africa, one of the experts interviewed for the MIL INDEX study
Eight experts were interviewed in each of the six countries, with the exception of Burkina Faso (6) and Ghana (7). Two experts per country were chosen from four fields of expertise: youth, media, education and MIL. The interview guides were based on DW Akademie’s five MIL dimensions (see above):
In total, 45 experts were interviewed.
Quantitative surveys based on multi-stage random samples were conducted in three countries: Burkina Faso, Ghana and Kenya. The studies are representative for 15-to-25-year-olds in the three countries and were backed up by plans to ensure that urban/rural and gender quotas are fulfilled. The questionnaire was, once again, guided by DW Akademie’s MIL model:
Overall, 3.813 youths were interviewed face-to-face for the surveys.
MIL INDEX Scores
The quantitative MIL INDEX score in the Burkina Faso, Ghana and Kenya reports is derived from the quantitative survey items for each of the five dimensions. The scores are based on a 100-point system, with 20 points allocated to each dimension:
The focus on key capabilities, attitudes and behavior allowed us to develop a short-hand MIL INDEX score for the representative samples of 15-to-25-year-olds in each of the three countries.