Reindeer are having trouble finding food in the Arctic. The effects of climate change mean that ground which thaws in summer freezes over in winter. Without the food provided by the Sami people, many reindeer would not survive Norway's long winters.
Visiting Canada's melting Arctic, German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas has said Europe had an "extraordinary" task to slash fossil fuel emissions. If it didn't, climate warming would rob polar regions of more ice cover.
US scientists have warned that higher temperatures in the Arctic could be fueling extreme weather in the US and Europe. The NOAA report said 2018 was the second-warmest year on record in the Arctic since 1900.
In 2017, parts of Europe, Canada and the US were ravaged by wildfires on an unprecedented scale. In 2018, new records are being set around the world as hot, dry temperatures and fires become the new normal.
More than 100 reindeer in Norway have been killed by freight trains in recent days, according to local reports. Railway operators have so far failed to put up a safety fence demanded by herders.
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