曾留学欧洲的独裁者 | 德国之声 来自德国 介绍德国 | DW | 21.04.2013
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时政风云

曾留学欧洲的独裁者

金正恩、阿萨德抑或波尔布特,许多日后的独裁者都曾在民主自由的欧洲留学深造过。然而这段经历,都不能帮助他们成为民主人士。

epa03646571 A handout photo made available 01 April 2013, by North Korea's official Korean Central News Agency KCNA, showing North Korean leader Kim Jong-un speaking during a plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea in Pyongyang on 31 March 2013. South Korea's president told the military 01 April 2013 to respond powerfully to North Korean provocations, amid heightened tensions on the peninsula, reports said. Park Guen Hye said she took recent threats from North Korea 'very seriously,' Yonhap News Agency reported. Pyongyang last month declared invalid the 1953 non-aggression treaty, cut two military hotlines, and announced at the weekend that it considered itself in a state of war with the South. EPA/KCNA / HANDOUT SOUTH KOREA OUT HANDOUT EDITORIAL USE ONLY/NO SALES +++(c) dpa - Bildfunk+++

朝鲜领导人金正恩

(德国之声中文网)金正恩是一名沉默的少年,从不引人注目。他并不真心喜欢德语,据称,他经常穿着一身运动服。同学都觉得他比较怪。他使用的化名是朴恩,身份是一名朝鲜驻瑞士使馆外交官的孩子。1997年时,他在位于瑞士伯尔尼附近的李伯菲尔德-施坦因霍尔茨里(Liebefeld-Steinhölzli-Schule)学校就读6年级。

当年的同学米卡艾罗(Joao Micaelo)是朴恩不多的几个朋友之一。米卡艾罗对一份瑞士报纸说,朴恩曾承认过,他其实不是外交官的孩子,而是朝鲜领袖的儿子。"他还给我看了他同金正日的合影。"

米卡艾罗当时想,这不过是炫耀罢了。不过,现在他能够肯定,当年的同学就是朝鲜今天的独裁者金正恩。

2012年,瑞士《星期天日报》委托一名擅长面部分析的人类学家。比洛特(Raoul Perrot)把一张朴恩的班级合影照同现在的金正恩进行比较。 结果是:一致程度高达95%。比洛特说,"对我而言,当年的学生朴恩就是金正恩,这是事实。"

金正恩在瑞士学校一直就读到2001年,那年,有关金正日后代在瑞士上学的传言开始传播,然后,朴恩就消失了。观察家希望,在西方受教育的事实将会对其民主意识产生影响,但这一迹象到目前为止还未出现。金正恩虽然喜欢迪斯尼式的游乐园,但最重要的乃是掌握政权,而且不计任何代价。

民主?决不!

"独裁者的儿子们到西方来不是学习民主,"政治学者迈尔(Günter Meyer)解释说,他们是来了解西方的生活方式,受更好的教育。完成教育后,他们又回到原有的旧的体制,"他们被植入权力结构中,不得摆脱。"如果谁屈从民主趋势,那么他便保不住自己家族的政权。

心理学教授贝诺斯(Johann Benos)在其专著《欧洲20名独裁者》一书中,将独裁者的发展史进行了对比,他写道,对这些人最重要的影响来自各自的家庭。"父亲的行为起着最为重要的作用。"一般而言,独裁者都是培养出来的,他们遭受打骂,也受到虐待。贝诺斯还说,"他们都经历了父亲的残忍,一方面,他们对父辈不屑一顾,但另一方面却又模仿他们。"

从希望之星变成威权主义者

***ACHTUNG: Bild nur zur zeitnahen (24 Stunden) Berichterstattung über das Interview verwenden!!!*** In this image taken from video filmed on Thursday, Feb. 28, 2013 and released Saturday evening, March 2, 2013, Syrian President Bashar Assad speaks during an interview with the Sunday Times, in Damascus, Syria. Iran and Syria condemned a U.S. plan to assist rebels fighting to topple Assad on Saturday and signaled the Syrian leader intends to stay in power at least until 2014 presidential elections. Assad told the Sunday Times in the interview timed to coincide with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry's first foreign trip that the intelligence, communication and financial assistance being provided is very lethal. Kerry announced on Thursday that the Obama administration was giving an additional $60 million in assistance to Syria's political opposition and would, for the first time, provide non-lethal aid directly to the rebels. (AP Photo/Sunday Times via AP video) THIS IMAGE IS FOR USE FOR 24 HOUR NEWS ACCESS ONLY, SUNDAY TIMES LOGO MUST NOT BE OBSCURED, NO ARCHIVES, NO SALES /PLEASE CONTACT SUNDAY TIMES SYNDICATION DEPARTMENT BY EMAIL TO ENQUIRIES@NISYNDICATION.COM FOR QUESTIONS REGARDING USE OUTSIDE THE 24 HOUR NEWS ACCESS WINDOW

叙利亚总统阿萨德

叙利亚总统阿萨德也是一例。他的青年时代中有一部分是在国外度过,在伦敦曾学医一年半。接管叙利亚政权时,观察家曾希望,阿萨德会推动该国的改革事业。政治学者、中东问题专家迈尔回忆说,"他被看作是推动民主的自由派统治者"。但很快他便屈就于家族内的权势压力,以及情报局的压力,阿萨德看到,如果他不想给政权和家族带来风险,根本不可能突破这一巨大的结构。最终阿萨德继承了他父亲的衣钵。

In this image made from video provided by the Zintan Media Center posted on YouTube internet site, Seif al-Islam Gadhafi makes remarks while in captivity in Zintan, Libya, Sunday, Nov. 20, 2011. The Libyan fighters holding Libya's former leader Moammar Gadhafi's son, Seif al-Islam Gadhafi have released this video of him saying an injury to his hand was the result of a NATO airstrike a month ago. In the video posted Sunday on YouTube, he says the raid struck his convoy in Wadi Zamzam, about 90 miles (140 kilometers) southeast of Tripoli. On screen Arabic script reads Media Centre Zintan (AP Photo / Zintan Media Center via YouTube, HO) EDITORIAL USE ONLY - LOGO MUST BE USED - MANDATORY CREDIT ZINTAN MEDIA CENTER

卡扎菲之子塞义夫

通过对独裁者儿女的教育而输出民主理念,显然这一希望不切实际并具有欺骗性。利比亚前独裁者卡扎菲之子塞义夫-阿尔-伊斯拉姆(Saif al-Islam Gaddafi)曾在其就读的著名伦敦经济学院,以"公民社会在全球机构的民主化进程中扮演的角色"为博士论文题目。但当他的父亲卡扎菲以及家族的权力受到威胁时,他便全然忘记了民主理论,并拿起武器。自2011年被捕后,塞义夫一直在押,国际刑法法庭要求将其引渡。

经济界获利

Former Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot answers questions during a Sunday, Jan. 4, 1998, interview near Anlong Veng, Cambodia. Rumors surrounding the whereabouts of Pol Pot have flourished lately. Pol Pot is blamed for overseeing the deaths of millions of Cambodians. (AP Photo/Prasit Saengrungruang/Bangkok Post)

柬埔寨红色高棉领到人波尔布特

迈尔认为,经济界希望培养独裁者的后代,"这样便可以建立关系,德国经济界从中获益匪浅,比如拿到订单。"

向欧洲学习并不一定意味着以人道为本执政,这一点上,柬埔寨前领导人波尔布特数十年前便提供了例证。这名后来成了杀人魔王的红色高棉领袖曾在法国著名高校索邦大学深造。

作者: Nils Naumann,  编译:李鱼

责编:苗子