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时政风云

以色列住房危机惹恼民众 爆发帐篷示威

鉴于以色列总理内塔尼亚胡的民调支持率迅速下降,现在他不得不采取行动,并宣布要推行一项重大的住房改革方案。观察家认为,以此来平复示威者的情绪还不够。

A homeless sleeping in the protesters tents camp in the center of Tel Aviv on Rothschild Boulevard in Israel on July 28, 2011. The 2011 housing protests in Israel are a series of ongoing street demonstrations taking place throughout Israel from 14 July 2011 onwards. The protests began as a result of a Facebook protest group that initially led hundreds of protesters to camp in tents in the center of Tel Aviv on Rothschild Boulevard, an act which soon gained momentum, media attention and began a public discourse in Israel regarding the high cost of housing and living expenses. Soon afterwards, the protests spread to many other cities in Israel as thousands of Israeli protesters began camping in tents in the middle of central streets in major Israeli cities as a means of protest. The protesters object to increasing housing prices in Israel, and especially in the country's major cities, which they claim prevents affordable housing. Photo by Rafael Ben-Ari/Chameleons Eye/ABACAUSA.COM

抗议者搭起了帐篷

7月26日,抗议者在内塔尼亚胡总理府外高喊"人民要求社会公正"。就在几个小时之前,以色列总理内塔尼亚胡刚刚在新闻发布会上表示:"住房短缺问题的确是以色列的一个真正的危机。既没有言过其实、也不是人为捏造的,而是一个真实存在的问题。凡是有眼睛有头脑的人都能看得出来。一些年轻人,他们有工作,而且收入还不错,但却买不起房。"

总理的改革措施没有得到抗议者认同

随后,内塔尼亚胡宣布了应对住房危机的一系列措施,该方案主要是针对大学生,让他们也能买的起房。总理这样做的目的,是否打算让在抗议阵地中具有影响力的学生团体撤出示威活动呢?不过,这一计划没有奏效。

抗议发起人达夫尼·勒芙(Daphne Leef)说:"因为缺少住房,以色列人才走到大街上抗议。因为要表达对政府的不满,他们才住在大街上。只要总理和以色列政府没有提交出一项经过深思熟虑、具有革命性的改革方案,抗议者还会继续逗留在大街上。而且这项改革方案必须要立即从根本上解决大多数人的困难。"

epa02846519 An Israeli girl sleeps in a sleeping bag on a small mattress with her doll nearby in its carriage at sun rise at the 'tent city' in central Jerusalem, Israel, on 29 July 2011. Israelis continue their protests over the rising cost of living and the inadequate, over-priced housing. EPA/JIM HOLLANDER +++(c) dpa - Bildfunk+++

直到获得满意的答复才肯撤离

被忽视的中产阶层

过去几年,以色列人的工资几乎没有增加,但生活成本却一路暴涨。国家大搞裙带关系。为了讨好在以色列政府组阁中起决定作用的党派,国家不断增加子女补贴,而这些党派中不乏有拥有众多子女的、极端保守的犹太人。

以色列"第10频道"政治评论员亚尔·纳达夫 (Eyal Nadav)分析说,以色列的中产阶层多年来被政府忽视。他说:"人们针对政府的抗议已经持续了多年,不仅仅是抗议内塔尼亚胡政府,还要抗议不惜损害中产阶层利益,扶植对政府起到支撑作用的行业和利益集团。以色列有让人们买得起的住房,但2010年国家批准规划的土地中,56%都被用于给极端保守的犹太人建造住房。这的确是一个事实,因为中产阶级没有自己的党派。"

政府陷入了巨大的民愤

目前,以色列全国各地都有示威者搭起的"抗议帐篷"。人们对该国高昂的住房租金、幼儿园费用、过低的工资和退休金表示不满。特拉维夫政治学家、内政专家大卫·纳赫米亚斯( David Nachmias)说,政府陷入了巨大的民愤。他说:"中产阶层要求公正公平的分配,但内塔尼亚胡没有给出令人信服的回答。他被右翼党派和极端保守党派组成的执政联盟所限制。以色列有强大的经济实力,但中产阶层并没有在经济增长中受益。"

ISRAEL, TEL AVIV - JULY 28 2011: General view of the protesters tents camp in the center of Tel Aviv on Rothschild Boulevard. The 2011 housing protests in Israel are a series of ongoing street demonstrations taking place throughout Israel from 14 July 2011 onwards. The protests began as a result of a Facebook protest group that initially led hundreds of protesters to camp in tents in the center of Tel Aviv on Rothschild Boulevard, an act which soon gained momentum, media attention and began a public discourse in Israel regarding the high cost of housing and living expenses. Soon afterwards, the protests spread to many other cities in Israel as thousands of Israeli protesters began camping in tents in the middle of central streets in major Israeli cities as a means of protest. The protesters object to increasing housing prices in Israel, and especially in the country's major cities, which they claim prevents affordable housing.

特拉维夫的“帐篷示威者”

事实是,以色列只有一小部分人获得了富裕的生活,而且该国几乎从不在基础设计建设和社会服务领域投资。以色列的学校在"国际学生评估项目"(Pisa)报告中永远是失败者。该国的卫生医疗系统也资金不足。公共交通几乎没有任何扩建。由住房危机引发的大范围抗议在愤怒中开始,但这并不是一个在短期内就可以得到解决的问题。

然而,该国的特殊状况却导致了,外交政策会迅速转移人们对国内困境的关注。以色列发行量较大的《晚报》"Maariv"发表评论称,总理内塔尼亚胡只将希望寄托于即将到来的九月。因为,巴勒斯坦人打算于今年9月要求联合国承认其独立建国,并渴望以一个独立国家的身份加入联合国。文章评论说,这样或许会给内塔尼亚胡在国内带来些许安宁。

作者:Tim Aßmann 编译:严严

责编:雨涵

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