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时政风云

世界上还树立着多少座“柏林墙”

50年前的8月13日,柏林墙开始修建。这座高墙20年前倒塌了,但是这世界上很多地方仍然高高地树立着各种形式的藩篱高墙,阻挡着两端的人们。

** FILE ** A section of Israel's separation barrier dividing the West Bank village of Sawarah from Jerusalem is seen in this Friday, March 10, 2006 photo. Breaking an old taboo, Israel's new government is drawing up plans to divide the holy city of Jerusalem by giving up Arab neighborhoods, an architect of the program said. Under the plan, which would be executed unilaterally if efforts to resume peace talks fail, Jerusalem's Old City, its holy shrines and the adjacent neighborhoods, would become a special region with special understandings, but remain under Israeli sovereignty, said Otniel Schneller, a lawmaker in Prime Minister Ehud Olmert's Kadima Party. (AP Photo/Kevin Frayer)

以色列筑起的隔离墙

A man crosses the U.N.-controlled buffer zone towards Turkish Cypriot part of Nicosia at Ledra Palace on Monday, April 26, 2004, two days after Turkish Cypriots endorsed a U.N. reunification plan by 64.91 percent as Greek Cypriots who rejected it by 75.8 percent. (AP Photo/Burhan Ozbilici)

南北塞浦路斯间的绿线

1974年,塞浦路斯被一分为二。这一分裂是希腊族人和土耳其族人之间长达数年的矛盾以及流血冲突最终带来的结果。被称作绿线的分隔南北塞浦路斯的分界线长约180公里。绿线穿过南北塞浦路斯共同的首都尼克西亚。这也是柏林墙倒塌之后世界上唯一一个被分割的首都城市。

2003年以来,当土族人有条件地开放边境之后,尼克西亚的局势有所缓解。但是尽管希族塞浦路斯加入了欧盟,可是完全取消隔离结束分裂的远景并不被人看好。

警戒非法移民的防护墙

耻辱之墙,一些人权人士这样称呼树立在美国和墨西哥之间的界墙。这条界墙长约3000公里,用铁丝网、铁板建成,上面还安装了运动传感器和红外线摄像头。上万名警察在边界巡逻,阻止非法移民踏上美国的领土。尽管如此,墨西哥、危地马拉和洪都拉斯的移民还是不惜豁上性命也要试着越过边界。

这段界墙不断地向海岸线的方向延长,每年大约有400人在尝试偷渡美国穿越界墙的路上丧命。比柏林墙树立的28年间死的人数还要多。

欧洲门前的藩篱

Border fences between Spanish enclave of Ceuta and Morocco

西班牙同摩洛哥间的边界

休达和梅利利亚是西班牙在非洲的飞地,因此这两地也属于欧盟。这两个地方常常成为非洲人偷渡的目的地。而这两个地方也同样建起了铁丝网,设置了观察哨,安装了运动感应器和红外线摄像头,目的都是将非法移民阻拦在欧盟的大门外。欧盟的申根协定为这两个地方阻拦非法移民所需的装备和人员配备提供了大量的资金。尽管这些措施手段花费不菲,但是仍然无法阻挡意图踏上欧盟土地的非洲非法移民的偷渡决心。

中东:以反恐的名义

Israeli soldiers patrol along the wall Israel built on the western edge of the West Bank town of Qalqilya Wednesday, June 18, 2003. Palestinian gunmen from Qalqilya bypassed the wall by entering Israel through a water drain and killed an Israeli girl and wounded her sister on Tuesday, just minutes after the Palestinian premier finished a meeting with leaders of militant groups, failing to persuade them to stop attacks. (AP Photo/ Eitan Hess-Ashkenazi)

加沙地带

有些人将它称作反恐之墙,另外也有些人将它称作新柏林墙。为了防止巴勒斯坦极端分子对以色列实施恐怖袭击,以色列在约旦河西岸修建了一片高墙。但是这片高墙也修建进入到巴勒斯坦人的居住区,这导致很多巴勒斯坦人的生活住房和耕作的田地被高墙阻隔在两端,他们不得不因此迁移自己的住所。

以色列方面说,隔离墙建成之后恐怖袭击的案例数量减少了。但是在国际上对于这种边界安全形式好坏的争议却是不断的。位于海牙的国际法庭在对这座隔离墙做出的鉴定书中强调,巴勒斯坦人自决的权利由于隔离墙的筑起受到很大限制。

朝鲜:冷战的焦点

A South Korean soldier stands guard at an observation post near the Demilitarized Zone which separates two Koreas in Paju, north of Seoul, Thursday, July 17, 2003. South and North Korean soldiers briefly exchanged machine gun fire in their border zone Thursday amid diplomatic efforts to resolve the North Korean nuclear standoff. The incident happened near the South Korean town of Yonchon, 60 kilometers (35 miles) north of Seoul, but no casualties were reported. (AP Photo/Lee Jin-man)

朝鲜半岛上的三八线

边界上荷枪实弹,社会主义和资本主义直面而对。这个地区局势不时地升级让人倍感焦虑。差不多像德国一样,二战结束后,朝鲜半岛被一分为二。

这一结果所造成的后果一直延续到今天。这道边界看守之紧几乎没有任何机会偷偷穿越。三八线北面的朝鲜人生活在隔绝的状态下,他们无法逃离这个独裁且饥荒严重的国家。朝鲜和韩国之间不断地发生一些小规模的军事冲突,朝鲜半岛的统一仍然是一件遥远无边的事。

克什米尔:500公里的铁丝网

A Pakistani soldier, top right, stands guard, overlooking to the closed border gate to India, in red, at Wagah, the joint border post of India and Pakistan, Saturday, Aug. 14, 2004. Pakistan on Saturday marked its 57th Independence Day from British rule. In center of photo is Mohammed Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan and its first president. (AP Photo/Aman Sharma)

克什米尔的印巴边界线

在局势不稳定的克什米尔树立着高达3米长达500多公里的隔离墙。印度方面修建了如此之长的隔离墙目的是为了阻止恐怖分子从巴基斯坦控制的克什米尔地区进入印度这一边。克什米尔当地人担心,印度方面可能会借助这段隔离墙将克什米尔永远地分成两部分。

作者:Nils Naumann/Claudia Brandt 编译:洪沙

责编:李京惠