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TARIHIN SHUGABANNIN KASA NA TARAYYAR JAMUS.

Tun da aka kirkiro Jumhuriyar Tarayyar Jamus a shekarar 1949 zuwa yanzu dai, an yi shugabannin kasa guda 8. A cikin watan Mayun wannan shekarar ne za a zabi shugaba na 9.

Theodor Heuss, farkon shugaban tarayyar Jamus.

Theodor Heuss, farkon shugaban tarayyar Jamus.

Theodor Heuss ne farkon shugaban tarayyar Jamus. A shekarar 1949 ne aka zabe shi a wannan mukamin, bayan kawo karshen yakin duniya na biyu, inda Hukumar Nazi ta shafa wa sunan Jamus kashin kaza, saboda mulkin muzgunawar da ta yi. Sabon shugaban, na sabuwar tarayyar Jamus da aka kikiro, bai bata lokaci ba, wajen sake salon mulki, duk da cewa, bisa sabon kundin tsarin mulkin da aka yarje a kansa, ba shi da cikakken iko. Da yake jawabin karbar wannan mukamin bayana an rantsad da shi a ran 12 ga watan Satumban shekara ta 1949, Theodor Heuss ya bayyana cewa:-

"Zan iya fada a wannan lokacin cewa, ba na nemi samun wannan mukamin ne don in bi son zuci na ba. Duk mutuncina na da jibinta da shi. Mukami ne da ya kunshi shirye-shiryen da suka hada da na kimiyya da kuma adabi. Ba karamin aiki ke gaba na bga. Amma zan iya bayyana muku cewa, ban taba janyewa daga mawuyacin aiki ba, musamman ma dai idan ya kunshi rataya nauyi a wuya."

Shi dai Theodor Heuss, ya hau mukamin shugaban kasar a lokacin da ake neman wani mai sassucin ra’ayi, wanda zai iya jagorancin sabuwar jumhuriyar tarayyar Jamus da aka kikiro.

Ya dai ba da himma, wajen gudanad da aikinsa. Sabili da haka ne kuma aka zabe shi ya zarce da mukamin a wa’adi na biyu, wanda sai a cikin shekarar 1959 ne ya cika. Ya dai share wa magadansa fage na ci gaba da shugabancin Jamus a siyasance.

Shugaban da ya biyo bayan Theodor Heuss ne Heinrich Lübke. Ya dai taka rawar gani wajen inganta fannin ba da taimakon raya kasashe na nan Jamus. Kafin ya zamo shugaban kasar dai, shi ne ministan noma a gwamnatin Konrad Adenauer. A lokacin wa’adinsa na biyu a a tsakiyar shekarun 1960 ne aka shirya masa wata makarkashiya, inda aka zarge shi da kasancewa wani babban jami’i na hukumar gine-gine, wadda kuma ta ba da kwangilar gina kananan dakunan da aka tsugunad da fursunonin da aka sa su aikin bauta a lokacin mulkin Nazi. Wannan makarkashiyar dai ta shafa wa sunan shugaban kashin kaza ainun. Bai dai cika wa’adinsa na biyu ba, kafin ya sauka daga mukaminsa a 1969. Yana daya daga cikin shugabannin Jamus da ba su yi kwarjini sosai ba.

Bayan Heinrich Lübke ne kuma aka nada Gustav Heinemann a mukamin shugaban kasar tarayyar Jamus. A lokacin da ya hau karagar mulkin dai, ya bayyana cewa zai mai da hankali ne wajen ganin cewa, an kiyaye ka’idojin kundin tsarin mulkin kasa, kuma an inganta kafofin dimukradiyya a nan kasar, abin da ya hada da tuntubar jama’a a harkokin siyasar kasa baki daya.

Walter Scheel ne shugaban tarayyar Jamus na 4, wanda kuma ya gaji wannan mukamin daga Heinemann a shekarar 1974. Ya dai rike mukamin ne har zuwa karshen wa’adinsa na farko a cikin shekarar 1979.

Daga bisani ne kuma, Karl Carstens ya zamo shugaban kasa. An dai kwatanta sabon shugaban ne da masu bin ra’ayin mazan jiya. Amma shi da kansa ya musanta wannan kwatanta shi da aka yi da mutanen daurin. A cikin wata fira da ya yi da maneman labarai, ya bayyana cewa:-

"Ban damu ba idan aka jibinta ni da masu bin ra’ayin mazan jiyan. Sai dai na san cewa, an yi kuskure a nan. Ni dai ina ganin kaina ne kamar mai bin ra’ayin sassauci. Amma na kuma yi imanin cewa, duk mai bin ra’ayin sassauci, wanda ke zaune a kasa mai bai wa kowa `yancinsa bisa dokokinta, ba zai iya kaucewa daga wasu ra’ayoyin mutanen dauri ba, musamman ma dai idan yana dauke da nauyin kare ginshikin tafarkin nan na bai wa kowa `yancinsa da kuma kafofin dokokin wannan kasa da ta ba da `yancin".

Bayan Carstens ne, Richard von Weizsäcker ya gajin mukamin na shugaban kasar tarayyar Jamus. An fi tunawa da wannan shugaban ne da jawabin da ya yi a lokacin bikin cika shekaru 40 da kawo karshen yakin duniya na biyu, a ran 8 ga watan Mayun 1985, inda ya bayyana cewa:-

Mu Jamusawa aldumma daya ne na kasa daya. A yunkurin da muke yi na cim ma zaman lafiya a duniya, a hade muke. Daga duk kasashen Jamus guda biyun ne muke begen ganin cewa an sami zaman lafiya cikin lumana da duk sauran kasashe. Tare ne duk al’umman Jamus ke neman cim ma zaman lafiya a duniya, inda adalci da kare hakkin dan Adam za su zamo mizani ga duk al’ummomi, har da tamu din."

A lokacin Weizsäcker din ne dai aka cim ma hadewar Jamus. Ta hakan ne kuma ake tunawa da shi tamkar farkon shugaban hadaddiyar tarayyarr Jamus.

Bayansa ne kuma, aka nada Roman Hezorg tamkar shugaban kasa na 7 tun da aka kirkiro Jumhuriyar Tarayyar Jamus, a shekarar 1949. Herzog, wanda kafin zamowa shugaban kasan, shi ne shugaban kotun kundin tsarin mulkin kasa ta tarayya, ya jagoranci Jamus ne daga 1994 zuwa 1999.

Daga 1999 ne kuma shugaba mai ci na yanzu, Johannes Rau, ya hau wannan mukamin. A cikin wannan watann na Mayu ne, za a sake zaben wani shugaban kuma. Shugaban Rau dai, ya ce ba zai sake tsayawa takara a wa’adi na biyu ba.

`Yan takarar da yanzu aka sa ido a kansu ne Horst Köhler na jam’iyyarr CDU da kuma Gesine Schwan ta jam’iyyar SPD. Ko wa dai ya ci nasara a zaben, ba zai iya kaucewa daga mizanin da sauran shugabanni 8 na wannan kasar suka yi aiki da shi ba.

  • Kwanan wata 18.05.2004
  • Mawallafi YAHAYA AHMED
  • Bugawa Buga wannan shafi
  • Permalink http://p.dw.com/p/BvjS
  • Kwanan wata 18.05.2004
  • Mawallafi YAHAYA AHMED
  • Bugawa Buga wannan shafi
  • Permalink http://p.dw.com/p/BvjS