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Siyasa

Shekaru 25 da yi wa shugaba Anwar Sadat kisdan gilla.

A ran 6 ga watan Oktoban 1981 ne, wato shekaru 25 da suka wuce nan, aka yi wa shugaba Anwar Sadat na ƙasar Masar kisan gilla abirnin al-ƙahira. Sadat dai, shi ne farkon shugaban wata ƙasar Larabawa da ya taɓa ƙulla yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya da Isra'ila, yarjejeniyar da ta shahara, wadda kuma aka fi sani da sunan "yarjejeniyar Camp David".

Shugaba Anwar Sadat (Hagu) da Jimmy Cater, da Menachim Begin, a lokacin ƙulla yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya a Camp David.

Shugaba Anwar Sadat (Hagu) da Jimmy Cater, da Menachim Begin, a lokacin ƙulla yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya a Camp David.

Alƙahira, a ran 6 ga watan Oktoba na 1981. A duk kewayowar wannan ranar, ana wani gagarumin biki da shagulgula daban-daban a birnin da ma ƙasar Masar gaba ɗaya, don tunawa da nasarar da dakarun Masar ɗin suka samu a yaƙin da suka yi da Isra’ila a cikin watan Oktoban 1973. A wannan ranar ma, kamar dai a ko wace shekarar tun 1973n, an shirya wani babban fareti ne a dandalin karrama sojojin ƙasar da suka faɗi, inda kuma duka manyan shugabanin Masar suka halara. Shugaba Sadat na cikin kayansa na soji tamkar babban kwamandan rundunar sojin ƙasar, rukunan sojoji kuma sun fara wucewa suna sara masa. Kyamarorin talabijin ɗin ƙasar duk sun ɗuƙufa ne wajen ɗauko hotunan bikin don su yaɗa su kai tsaye zuwa duniya baki ɗaya. Kwatsam sai duk hotunan suka ɓace kan talabijin. Maimakon haka, ba zato ba tsammani sai amon bindiga kawai ake ta ji. Ko’ina ya ruɗe.

An dai ɗan jima kafin a san abin da ke wakana. Wasu sojoji daga rukunan da ke sara wa shugaba Sadat ɗin sun ta da zaune tsaye. A daidai lokacin da motarsu ta zo wucewa gaban shugaban ne suka diro suka nufi inda shi da sauran manyan baki suke; sai buɗe wuta. Nan take ne dai suka halaka mutane da dama. Shugaba Anwar Sadat na Masar ne dai abin bararsu. Kuma, a nan ne ya gamu da ajalinsa.

Waɗanda suka aikata wannan ɗanyen aikin dai, kamar yadda aka gano daga baya, su ne ’yan ƙungiyar nan ta „Islamic Jihad“. Sun dai shirya wannan ɗaukin ne a hankali, inda suka sami sulala cikin sojojin da aka zaɓa su sara wa shugaba Sadat, shugaban da suka fi ƙyamansa, suka kuma lashi takobin kau da shi daga doron ƙasa, kamar yadda suka bayyanar. Dalilin wannan matuƙar ƙyamar kuwa, shi ne yarjejeniyar zaman lafiyar da ya ƙulla da Isra’ila a Camp David, a can Amirka, a shekarar 1979.

Shi dai marigayi shugaba Anwar Sadat, tun yana mai shekaru 20 da haihuwa, wato a 1938 ne ya gama horonsa na soji a cibiyar horad da hafsoshi ta birnin al-Ƙahira. Ba da daɗewa ba ne kuma, a lokacin yaƙin duniya na biyu, shi da wasu hafsoshin sojin Masar ɗin suka ta da bore na daddage wa angizon da Birtaniya ke ta yaɗawa a ƙasar. Birtaniyan dai ta iya murƙusad da wannan tarzomar, inda kuma ta ɗaure Sadat da abokan burminsa a kurkuku, saboda zargin da ta yi musu na haɗa kai da Jamusawa wajen shirya mata maƙarkashiya. Amma Sadat, ya iya tserewa daga kukrkukun. A bayan yaƙin duniya na biyun ne kuma ya kasance cikin wani rukunin soji, wanda tare da Gamal Abdel Nasser, suka hamɓarad da Sarki Faruk na Massar, sa’annan Nasser ɗin ya zamo shugaban ƙasar Massar. A ƙaƙashin Nasser dai, Anwar Sadat, ya riƙe muƙamin mataimakin shugaban ƙasa har sau biyu. Kuma shi ya gaji Gamal Abdel Nasser, yayin da ba zato ba tsammani, ya rasu a cikin shekarar 1970.

A lokacin mulkin Anwar Sadat ne dai aka sami canje-canje da dama a Masar, inda kuma aka fara aiwatad da tsarin jari-hujja da kuma ƙasar ta fara bin aƙidar ƙasashen Yamma. Za a iya lura da wannan canza sheƙa da Masar ta yi ne a zahiri , a cikin shekarar 1972, yayin da shugaba Sadat ya kori hafsoshin sojin Rasha dubu 18 daga ƙasar, sa’annan kuma ya katse dogaron da Masar ke yi kan birnin Moscow.

Shekara ɗaya bayan haka ne shugaba Sadat, tare da shugaba Hafez al-Assad na Siriya, suka ƙaddamad da yaƙin watan Oktoba kan Isra’ila. A karo na farko dai, ƙasashen byiu sun sami nasara a yaƙi da ƙasar bani Yahudun. Duk da wannan nasarar dai, ba su iya sun ci Isra’ilan da yaƙi ba, saboda daga baya, Isra’ilan ta sake mamaye yankunan da ta yi asararsu. Amma wannan yaƙin ne ya share wa Masar fagen ƙulla yarjejeniyar zaman lafiyar da Isra’ila.

Shekaru 4 bayan yaƙin ne dai shugaba Sadat ya ba da sanarwar cewa, burin da ya sanaya a gaba ne cim ma zaman lafiya da Isra’ila, kuma ko da hakan zai bukaci zuwansa birnin ƙudus ne don yi wa majalisar ƙasar bani Yahudun, wato Knesset, jawabi. Ta hakan ne kuwa ya kai ziyara a birnin Ƙudus, abin da ya janyo ƙulla yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya ta Camp David da Isra’ila a 1979. A bikin sanya hannu kan wannan yarjejeniyar, shugaba Jimmy Carter na Amirka da Firamiyan Isra’ila Menachem Begin na tare da shugaba Sadat yayin da ya yi wannan jawabin:-

„Yau dai wata rana ce ta tarihi mai matuƙar muhimmanci ga duk masu ƙaunar ganin an tabbatad da zaman lafiya a duniya. Duk waɗanda ke amanna da kuma taya mu yaɗa wannan wahayin, za su yarje da irin ƙasaita da faɗi da muhimmancin wannan gagarumin burin da muka sanya a gaba.“

A duniyar Larabawa dai, babu wanda ke fahimtar manufar Anwar Sadat kuma. An yi ta zanga-zanga a ƙasashen Larabawa da dama, don nuna ɓacin rai ga matakin da ya ɗauka. Kusan duk ƙasashen ne kuma suka katse hulɗar diplomasiyya da al-Ƙahira. Kai Ƙungiyar Ƙasashen Larabawa ma, sai da ta ta da hedkkwatarta daga al-Ƙahira zuwa birnin Tunis. Kai tsaye ne dai Falasɗinawa, a lokacin ƙarƙashin jagorancin Yasser Aarafat, suka yi watsi da yarjejeniyar ta Camp David, musamman da ɓangaren da ya shafi makomarsu.

A taƙaice dai, bayan ƙulla wannan yarjejeniyar, Sadat ya kasance ne ba shi da wani masoyi kuma a duniyar Larabawa. A cikin ƙasarsa ma sai da aka yi ta tashe-tashen hankulla. Sai a ƙasashen Yamma ne shugaba Sadat ke ta samun yabo da amincewa da manufofinsa. A loakcin da aka yi wa Anwar Sadat kisan gilla, shugaba Ronald Reagan na Amirka, ya kambama shi ne da cewa:-

„Shugaba Sadat mutum ne da ya nuna ƙwazo da bajinta, wanda wahayi da basirarsa, suka janyo kusantar al’ummomi da ƙasashe. A duniyar nan tamu da ke cike da ƙyama, Sadat ya kasance mutum mai farfaɗo da fatan alheri a zukatan ɗimbin yawann jama’a.“

  • Kwanan wata 06.10.2006
  • Mawallafi YAHAYA AHMED
  • Bugawa Buga wannan shafi
  • Permalink http://p.dw.com/p/Btxo
  • Kwanan wata 06.10.2006
  • Mawallafi YAHAYA AHMED
  • Bugawa Buga wannan shafi
  • Permalink http://p.dw.com/p/Btxo