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Menene Darwaniyanci

Bayani akan Darwaniyanci da akidunsa.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

Jamaa masu sauraronmu assalamu alaikum, barkammu da wannan lokaci, barkammu kuma da sake saduwa da ku a cikin wani sabon shirin na wasikun ma su sauraro,shirin da yake amsa tambayoyin da ku masu sauraro kukan aikomana.

Yahuza: Fatawarmu ta wannan makon, ta fito daga Hannun Malama Aliya Hamisu, Daliba a Jamiar Bayero, dake Jihar-kanon Tarayyar Najeriya. Malamar cewa ta yi, Menene (Darwanism) ko kuma ace Darwaniyanci a hausance,kuma wace irin annoba ya jawowa Duniya, kuma menene alakarsa da kwaminisanci da kuma Ta’addanci, kuma ina so ku gaya min, ko akwai wata alaka tsakanin Darwaniyanci da Ka’idar juyin halitta, wato“Evolution“ a turance.

Bashir: Darwaniyanci kalmace sabuwa a wajen mutane da dama,kuma ta samo asaline daga sunan mutumin da ya kafata wa Charles Darwin.Atakaice dai maanar wann akida shine cewa:Rayuwa gaba dayanta abace da ta samu kwatsam, ba wai halittarta aka yi ba.kuma komai mutum ya gani a duniya ya samu ne ta hanyar ka’idar juyin halitta, wato maana asalinsa wani abune sannan daga baya ya rikida ya zama yadda yake, kuma nan gaba zai sake rikida ya koma wani abu daban, kamar yadda masu wannan akida suke bada misali da cewar,Dan adam ya samo asali ne daga gwoggon biri, daga baya ya rikida ya zama Mutum.Wannan shine Darwaniyanci.

Yahuza: To wannan yana nufin kena shi Charles Darwin, shine ya kirkiro da ka’idar juyin halitta?

Bashir: Babu shakka, Mutane da yawa sun dauka cewar Charles Darwin shine mutumin da ya fara kirkiro ka`idar juyin halitta(theory of evolution), wanda ya rataya akan hujjoji na kimiyya, wato lura da kuma gwaje-gwaje, ko kuma ace Obsevatins and Experiments a turance. Saboda haka, ta wannan fuska, Darwin ba shine ya kirkiro ba, ballantana ma kuma ka`idar ba`a kafa ta akan hujjojin kimiyya ba. Ka`idar ta kunshi daukar yanayi (nature) daga imanin mutanen Da, akan falsafar jari-hujja, wato materialist Phylosopy a Turance. Duk da cewar dai babu wata hujja ta kimiyya, sabo- da haka, sun marawa ka`idar baya ne a karkashin sunan falsafar jari-hujja.

Wannan tsantseni ya haifar da annoba iri-iri.haduwar akidar Darwin da Falsafar jari-hujja sun canja ma’anar ainihin wanene Dan-adam. Mutanen da suka saba fadin cewa:Allah ne ya halicci `yan Adam, kuma yasa su,su rayu akan kyawawan dabi`u na jinkai da taimakon juna yadda Allah yai Umarni, su fara canza tunaninsu zuwa cewar 'Mutum ya samu ne haka nan kwatsam, kuma mutum dabba ne wanda ya ginu da fafutukar rayuwa. 'Lalle zasu biya farashi mai nauyi akan wannan gagarumar yaudarada suka yiwa Duniya. Akidu masu kawo rigingimu, irin su wariyar launin fata, mulkin kama-karya, kwaminisanci dadai sauran akidoji munana wadanda suka taallaka da wannan yaudarasuna da yawan gaske.

Yahuza: To wace irin annoba Darwinism ko akidar Darwin ta jawowa duniya?

Bashir: To babbar annobar da darwaniyanci ya jawowa Duniya, shine karyar da Darwin ya yi wa duniya cewa; Rayuwa rikici ce.Darwin ya fitar da wata fahimta, lokacin da yake bunkasa ka`idarsa cewa:

"Bunkasar abubuwa masu rai sun dogara ne akan gwagwarmayar rayuwa. Mai karfi ya danne mara karfi. Mai rauni kuwa an dammara shi da zama a haka. "

Wato maana,Darwin yana cewa, akwai dawwamammiyar gwagwarmayar rayuwa da rikici a yanayin rayuwa. Mai karfi kullum shine a saman mara karfi, kuma wannan shi zai tabbatar da samuwar cigaba. Ya tabbatar da wannan raayi a cikin litattafansa irin su;'The Origin of species by means ofNatural Selection', ko 'The preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for Life', Watau kamar dai a hausa ace Tanadin da aka yiwa zababbin kabilu a gwagwarmayar rayuwa.

Bayan haka, Darwin yayi hasashen wai 'gwagwarmayar rayuwa' za ta iya shiga cikin jinsin mutum. A da`awarsa, 'zababbun jinsi sune sukai nasara a wannan gwagwarmaya' zababbun jinsi a wurin Darwin sune turawan yamma. Su kuwa alummar Nahiyar Afrika da Asiya sune aka bari a baya a wannan gwagwarmayar rayuwa. Darwin ya cigaba da fadin ra`ayinsa cewar wadannan jinsi da sannu zasu fadi warwas a gwagwarmayar rayuwa kuma a daina jin duriyarsu:

Akan wannan ra’ayi na Darwin,Wata Yar Hindu masaniya akan ilimin Anthropology, mai suna Lalita Vidyarthi tayi bayanin ka`idar juyin halitta din Darwin, ta cusa akidar wariyar launin fata a cikin zaman takewar kimiyya:

Yahuza: To Baban hanif, tunda kace Charles Darwin ba shine ya kirkiro wannan akida ta juyin halitta ba, to daga ina yake samo wannan raayi nasa?

Bashir: Inda Darwin yake samo wahayi a wannan fage shine littafin masanin tattalin arzikin Birtaniya Thomas Malthus 'An Essay on the principle of population'. Wato Kasida akan ka’idar yawan al’umma.A mummunar akidarsu, Malthus ya auna yaga cewa lalle mutane suna karuwa akai-akai.

A ra`ayinsa, abinda yake hana yawan karuwar mutane shine bala`o`i kamarsu yaki, annoba da yaduwar cuta. A takaice dai, a cikin zancensa mai muni yana cewa, dole wasu mutane su mutu don wasu su rayu. Ci gaban rayuwa yana nufin dawwamamman yaki.

Sabodahaka,A cikin karni na sha tara, ra`ayin Malthus ya samu karbuwa. Ajin farko na masana turawan yamma sun marawa wannan mugun tunani na sa baya. Dangane da ra`ayin Malthus akan yawan mutane, an bayyana shi da cewa;

"A farkon rabin karni na sha tara, a ko`ina a kasahen Turai, kusoshin Mulki sun taru don su tattauna akan sabon bincike 'matsalar yawan jama`a da kuma samar da hanyoyin da za`a aiwatar da ra`ayin Malthus, da kara yawan adadin nakasar talakawa, maimakon a samar da hanyar tsaftatuwar talakawa, lallai mu kwadaitar akan kishiyar hakan. Abiranenmu lallai mu matse hanyoyi, da tura mutane da yawa cikin gidaje, kuma mu dawo da tabarbarewar halaye. A kasashen mu sai mu gina kauyuka kusa da kudduddufai, kuma musamman kwadaitar da zama a kwazazzabai da wurare marasa kyau, " Mu kuma samar da wata Ka’ida, yadda talakawa baza su iya mallakar abin kansu ba.Da dai sauransu munanan dokokin da aka tsara, wai kawai duk akan cewa , matukardai dai ba ansa talakawa cikin halin kakanikayi ba, to rayuwa bazata ci gaba ba.

To a Dalilin wannan mummunar akida, masu rauni da kuma wadanda suka fadi a wannan gwagwarmaya za`a kawar dasu, saboda haka yawan da ake samu akai-akai zai yi daidai kenan. Wannan akida, ta 'tursasawa talaka' ta samu aiwatuwa ne a Birtaniya a karni na 19. Wata doka ta raya masana`antu ta samu kafuwa inda aka sa yara `yan shekara takwas da tara yin aiki na awa shida a kullum, a wajen hako kol kuma dubbai sun mutu a sanadiyyar haka, saboda matsanancin yanayin da suka samu kansu. Miliyoyin mutanen kasar Birtaniya sun shiga halin kaka-nikayi a dalilin tsarin 'gwagwarmayar rayuwa' wanda Malthus ya kafa.

Darwin ya rudu da wannan ra`ayi, kuma ya aiwatar dashi akan sauran yanayin halittu, kuma ya ambata cewa lallai mai karfi kullum shine mai nasara a cikin yakinnan na wanzuwar rayuwa. Haka kuma, yayi da`awar cewa wannan ka`idar gasgatacciya ce kuma ba zata taba canjuwa ba. Daga nan sai ya gayyato mutane akan su rabu da addininsu kuma su ki yarda da cewa Allah ne yayi halitta, kuma su himmatu wajen fito da hujjoji da zasu iya yin karo da abokan adawa akan gwagwarmayar rayuwa.


Yahuza: Wace irin nasara ko kuma akasin haka wannan akida ta Darwin ta samu?

Bashir: To, A yayin da Darwiniyanci ya haifar da wariyar launin fata a cikin karni na 19, sai ya dunkule ya zama akidar da zata iya bunkasa ko farfado da tsundamar duniya cikin zubar da jini a karni na 20.

Karfin rinjayen Darwin zai iya ganuwa a akidojin mutanen da suka haifar da yakin Duniya. Idan mutum yai nazarin wannan akida, zai fahimci cewa akwai manufar 'zabin halitta', 'zabin ma`abota', da 'gwagwarmayar rayuwa tsakanin jinsuna', wanda aka maimaita su da yawan gaske a cikin littafin 'The Origin of Species. Wato asalin halittu.Mutane da suka haddasa yakin Duniya, sun samo wahayinsu ne daga akidar Darwin ta gwagwarmayar rayuwa da kuma cewa nasara tana ga mai karfi.

Sabodahaka "Fadin cewa Mutanen da suka haddasa yakin Duniya, sun jawu daga ra`ayin Darwiniyanci, hujja ce wadda kusan dukkanin masana tarihi suka yarda da ita. Masanin tarihi Hickman, yana daga cikin mutanen da suka bayyan wannan ra’ayi

Wadannan mutane da suka amince da raayin Darwin, sun yi mujazar samar da yakin duniya, inda suka jefa duniya cikin rigingimu wanda bata taba gani ba. Inda yakin duniya na biyu kadai, yayi sanadiyyar kisan kiyashi na mutane miliyan (55) hamsin da biyar. Abinda ya haifar da wannan ta`asa a tarihin duniya shine akidar Darwaniyanci ta 'gwagwarmayar rayuwa' ko 'struggle for survival' a turance.


Yahuza: Shin dagaske ne akwai wata alaka tsakanin Darwaniyanci da kwaminisanci?

Bashir: Hakika kwaminisanci daya ne daga cikin akidojin dake kare ka`idar Darwin,domin kuwa, A lokacin da mulkin danniya ke hannun daman akidar Darwaniyanci, a hagu kuma na Kwaminisanci ke biye.

Dangantakar dake tsakanin Darwiniyanci da Kwaminisanci, na komawa ne ga wadanda suka kafa su. Marx da Engels, sune suka kafa Kwaminisanci, kuma sun karanta littafin nan na Darwin wato 'The Origin of Species' a daidai lokacin da ya fito kuma suka gamsu da tsarin maganganun halayyar jari-hujja. Alakar dake tsakanin Karl Marx da Engels ta nuna cewar sun fahimci ka`idar Darwin a matsayin abinda ke bada hujjar tarihin yanayin bawa Kwaminisanci kofa. Engels ya rubuta A littafinsa mai suna 'The Dialectics of Nature', wanda ya rubuta a sanadiyyar ruduwa da akidar Darwin, Inda yayi mutukar yabawa Darwin a wannan littafi.

`Yan Kwaminisancin Rasha, wadanda ke bin sawun Marx da Engels, kamarsu Plekhanov, Lenin, Trotsky da Stalin, dukkaninsu sun yarda da ka`idar juyin zamanin Darwin(Darwin`s theory of evolution). Plekhanov, wanda ake ganin shine ya dasa harsashen Kwaminisancin Rasha yana daukar Marxism a matsayin 'Darwiniyanci a aikace a ilmin zaman tare'.

Ilmin Darwiniyanci yana da rawa mai yawa da ya taka wajen haifar da kwaminisanci. Misali, masana tarihi sun tabbatar cewa Stalin mutum ne mai addini a lokacin samartakarsa, amma ya daina addini saboda littattafan Darwin.

Mao, wanda ya kafa tsarin mulkin kwaminisanci a China kuma ya kashe miliyoyin mutane, ya fada a bainar jama`a cewa 'an kafa kwaminisancin China ne akan tafarkin Darwin da ka`idar evolution. '

Masanin tarihin Harvard University James Reeve Pusey yayi cikakken bayani da ya danganci Darwiniyanci akan Mao da Kwaminisancin China a littafinsa na bincike mai suna 'China and Charles Darwin'.

A takaice ai, babu wata kafa dake raba tsakanin ka`idar evolution da kwaminisanci. Ka`idar tazo da cewar dukkan wani abu mai rai ya wanzu ne haka kawai kwatsam, kuma suka kawo hujjojinsu na shaci fadi da sunan kimiyya don tabbatar da addinin maguzanci. Kwaminisanci kuwa, akida ce wadda ta kulla alakar ta da Darwiniyanci. Bayan haka, ka`idar ta cigaba da cewa cigaban yanayi na iya yiwuwa ta hanyar gwagwarmayar rayuwa (struggle for survival) da marawa akidar 'dialectics' baya wadda jigo ce a kwaminisanci.

Idan muka tuna akidar kwaminisanci ta 'dialectical conflict'wato rikicin wariyar harshe wadda tayi sanadiyyar mutuwar mutum sama da miliyan dari da ashirin (a cikin karni na ashirin, 20th century), zamu iya fahimtar irin annobar daDarwiniyanci ya gayyatowa duniya.


Yahuza: Menene kuma alakar Darwaniyanci da Taaddanci?

Bashir: To Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, Darwiniyanci shine mabubbugar akidu masu yawa wadanda suke tattare da rigingimun da suka haifarwa da dan Adam annoba a karni na 20. Haka kuma, kamar dai wadannan akidu, shima Darwiniyanci ko akidar babu Allah, ya bayyana 'daidaitacciyar fahimta' da 'tsari'wanda zai iya jan hankalin ra`ayoyiiri-iri a duniya. Manufar da take karkashin wannan fahimta da kuma tsarin shine 'yakar wadanda basa cikinmu'.

Zamu iya fayyace wannan kamar haka; Akwai akidu iri-iri, da ra`ayoyi kala-kala,da kuma falsafa daban-daban a duniya. Kuma Kowannensu na kallon dan uwansa a dayan biyun wannan hanyoyi:

Hanya ta farko itace; Duk masu wata akida, Zasu iya girmama wadanda basa tare dasu da kokarin kulla alaka ta sulhu ko tattaunawa, wato suyi amfani da tsari na mutuntaka; ko

Hanya ta biyu kuwa itace;Zasu iya zabar su yaki wasu, da kuma kokarin samun damar raunana su, ma`ana dai, suyi amfani da halayya irin ta dabbobi.

Abin tsoron da muke kira ta`addanci ba wani abu bane illa bayanin nan na ra`ayi na biyu.

Idan muka kalli bambancin dake tsakanin ra`ayoyin biyu, zamu ga cewa salon da Darwaniyanci ya dauka na cewa wai "mutum wata dabba ce mai dabi`ar fada" ba komai bane illa rudar da mutane ta karfin tuwo. Daidaikun mutane da jama`arsu wadanda suka zabi wannan hanya ta rigingimu, watakila basu taba sanin wani abu mai suna Darwaniyanci da akidunsa ba. Amma a karshe, sun zo sun yarda da ra`ayin Darwiniyanci.

Idan hakane mai yajawo wadannan mutane suka yarda da raayin Darwaniyanci?

Abinda ya jawo suka yarda da ingancinsa shine, taken Darwaniyanci kamar, 'mai karfi shi yake rayuwa a wannan duniya', 'babban kifi shi yake hadiye kanana', „“Zaki shi yake cinye kananan namun daji“, yaki dabi`a ce', da kuma cewar 'mutum na cigaba ne ta hanyar jangwalo yaki'.Duk irin wadannan dalilai na karya da aka cusa a kwakwalwar Dan-adam, sune suka haifar da balain da Dan adam ya samu kansa a ciki, a wannan zamani.

Yahuza: To Abba yanzu mecece mafita ga wannan alamari?

Bashir: To mafita iatce kawai, Mutane su jefar da Darwaniyanci su kuma dawo daga rakiyarsa, domin ba komai bane illa fankon da babu tsinke a cikinsa.

Hakika, idan aka jefar da Darwaniyanci, to, babu wata falsafar rikici da zata rage a Duniya. Babu wani addini da Allah ya saukar wanda yake yin umarni ga tayar da tarzoma.Addinai ukun da mafi yawan mutane suka yi imani dasu, Musulunchi, Kiristanci, da Yahudanci, sun kyamaci rikici. Dukkaninsu na fatan su kawowa duniya zaman lafiya ne, da kyamar kashe mutanen da basu jiba kuma basu gani ba, da hana cutar da mutane ko azabtar dasu. Rigingimu da tayar da tarzoma sun karya tsarin dabi`un da Ubangiji ya shiryawa dan Adam, kuma ababan kyama. Sai dai, Darwaniyanci ya gabatar dasu a matsayin yanayi mai afkuwa, nagaskiya, kuma babu makawa sai sun wanzua Duniya.

Saboda haka, idan wasu mutane suka aikata ta`addanci ta hanyar fakewa da addinin Musulunchi, ko addinin Kiristanci ko kuma addinin Yahudanci, zaa iya tabbatar da cewa,Wadannan Mutane, ba Musulman gaskiyabane,ko ba kiristocin gaskiya bane, ko ba yahudawan gaskiya bane, mabiya addinin Darwin ne, ko sun sani ko basu sani ba.

Kuma dalili shine suna aikata abinda addini ya hana, ba don komai ba sai don su bakanta addini a idon mutane, Saboda haka, tushen ta`addancin da ya cika wannan duniya tamu bashi da alaka da daya daga cikin addinan da Allah madaukakin sarki ya saukar, sai dai kawi maguzanci ne,kuma fassarar maguzanci a wannan zamani namu shine:'Darwniyanci' da Jari-hujja.

  • Kwanan wata 29.01.2007
  • Mawallafi Abba Bashir
  • Bugawa Buga wannan shafi
  • Permalink http://p.dw.com/p/BvV0
  • Kwanan wata 29.01.2007
  • Mawallafi Abba Bashir
  • Bugawa Buga wannan shafi
  • Permalink http://p.dw.com/p/BvV0