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Siyasa

Majalisar dinkin duniya ta cika shekaru 60

Taya murna ga majalisar dinkin duniya-Shekaru sittin da kafa ta.

Tutar majalisar dinkin duniya

Tutar majalisar dinkin duniya

Shekaru sittin da suka wuce, wato a ranar ashirin da shidda ga watan Yuni na shekara ta 1945, wakilai daga kasashe hamsin suka hallara a San Francisco, inda a lokacin wani taro, suka sanya hannu kann kundin da ya zama tushen kafa majalisar dinkin duniya.

Majalisar dinkin duniya ta farko ta rushe ba tare da ta tabuka wani abin azo a gani ba. Majalisar ta farko, wadda aka kirkiro ta bayan yakin duniya na daya, ana iya cewa ta rushe ne saboda wani dalili guda: manyan kasashen da suka fi karfi a udniya sun ki shiga cikin ta. A wannan lokaci, majalisar ta zura ido, a daidai lokacin da kasashe kamar Jamus da Japan suke ci gaba da shirye-shiryen fara yakin duniya na biyu. Jeff Laurenti, masani kann majalisar dinkin duniya a cibiyar da ake kira Century Foundation yace:

Babban darasin da aka koya daga rushewar majalisar dinkin duniya ta farko shine, ba zai yiwu manyan dauloli, kamar Amerika ko taraiyar Soviet su kauracewa kungiya ta gaba da za’a kafa ba. A wancan lokaci, majnyan kasashen sun yi kokarin janyxe jikin su ne daga yakin da suke ganin ba nasu bane, amma ba zato, ba tsammani suka shiga fuskantar hare-haren da basu ne suka fara tsokanar su ba.

Tun ana cikin yakin duniya na biyu, shugaban Amerika, Franklin Roosevelt ya fara tunanin matakan da za’a dauka bayan yakin. Yana sane da cewar majalisar dinkin duniya sabuwa da za’a kafa, zata bukaci taimako daga manyan kasashe masu karfi. Da farko ya shawarta da Pirayim ministan Ingila, Winston Churchill, sa’annan zauna kann teburin shawarwari da kasashen China da taraiyar Soviet. A watan Satumba na shekara ta 1944, mashawartan suka gabatar da tsarin farko na yadda majalisar zata kasance, kuma misalin shekara guda bayan wannan taro ne aka kirkiro majalisar a San Francisco. A zaman farko na majalisar, Roosevelt ya tura ministan sa na harkokin waje, Edward Stettinius domin ya wakilce shi, inda ministan yace:

Muna iya tuna cewar ba’a sami nasara kann Jamus ba sai a sakamakon hade karfi wuri guda da kasashen duniya suka yi, domin fuskantar abu guda da ya shafe su. Zaman lafiya mai dorewa kuwa ba zai yiwu ba, sai idan kasashen na duniya sun hade karfin su wuri guda, domin samar da zaman lafiyar. Majalisar dinkin duniya, wadda kundin kafa ta ne muka taru domin rubutawa da amincewa dashi, wajibi ne a kirkiro ta.

Sai dai kuma Roosevelt da Churchill da Stalin sun yi iyakacin kokarin su, domin ganin rikon ga majalisar bai sullube daga hannun su ba. Hakan shi ya sanya suka ki baiwa babbar mashawartar majalisar, inda dukkanin kasashe suke da wakilci, ko wanne irin iko, inda a daura da haka, suka kirkiro kwamitin sulhu mai karfin gaske, inda su kansu suke da zaunannun kujeru. Wadannan zaunannun kasashe kuwa, tun da farko aka kuma tabbatar masu da yancin kada kuri’un hawa kujerar naki. Thomas Weiss, masanin al’amuran siyasa a jami’ar birnin New York yace:

Dalilin da ya sanya Amerika ta zama wakiliya a sabuwar majalisar dinkin duniya, amma taki shiga majalisar dinkin duniya ta farko, shine rashin yancin hawa kujerar naki. Wannan kuma shine dalilin da ya kawo taraiyar Soviet cikin majalisar ta yanzu.

Shekarun farko na majalisar dai sun zama masu kayatarwa, cike da haske. A shekara ta 1948, aka gabatar da kudirin da ya tabbatar da kare hakkin yan Adam, wanda yake al’amari ne mai matukar muhimmanci da ya shafi yancin jama’a.

To amma daga baya kasashen da suka hada gwiwa, suka sami nasarar yakin duniya na biyu, sannu a hankali suka zama manyan abokan gaban junan su. Sabani a tsakanin kasashe masu bin tsarin kwaminisanci da kasashen yamma yan jari hujja ya haddasa karkasuwa a kwamitin sulhu. Kwamitin, da shine mafi karfin iko a majalisar ya kai matsayin da baya iya tabuka wani abin azo a gani, saboda zaunannun kasashen cikin sa guda biyar sun rika amfani da yancin su na hawa kujerar naki, musmman idan abin da aka zo dubawa ya shafi manyan daulolin duniya ne, wato Amerika da Soviet. Hakan dai ya tauye aiyukan majalisar dinkin duniya har zuwa karshen shekaru na tamanin.

A bayan rushewar katangar Berlin da kuma kawo karshen zaman doya da manja tsakanin kasashen gabas da na yamma, an kuma kawo karshen babakere da wasu zaunannun kasashe suke yi wa kwamitin sulhu. Manyan kasashen suka daina amfani da yancin su na hawarar kujerar naki sosai, kuma nan da nan majalisar dinkin duniya ta sami sabon haske, ta fara farfadowa.

Wannan sabon matsayi na majalisar musamman ya shafi aiyukan ta na kiyaye zaman lafiya a yankunan duniya dabam dabam. A shekara ta 1988, majalisar ta sami lambar yabo ta Nobel a fannin zaman lafiya. Daga wannan lokaci, aka sami karuwar masu kira ga tura sojojin majalisar domin kiyaye zaman lafiya a wurare da dama. To sai dai ba a duka inda aka tura su ne sojojin rundunar suka sami nasara ba. Sojojin majalisar sun kasa dakatar da yakin basasa a kasar Somalia, sun kuma kasa dakatar da kisan kare dangi da aka yi a Rwanda, sa’anan a Bosnia sun sha suka, saboda ganin kisan kare dangi da aka aiwatar a Srebrenica, an yi shi ne a kann idon rundunar.

A daidai lokacin da take cika shekaru sittin da kafa ta, majalisar dai ta bukaci gyare-gyare masu tsanani. Wannan kuma shine abin da janar sakatare Kofi Annan yaso aiwatarwa, to amma taron kolin da aka yi a watan Satumba, bai amince da abin da ake iya kwatanta shi a matsayin dan kwarya-kwaryar gyara da babu wanda ya gamsu dashi ba.