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Zamantakewa

Kyautar Nobel ta adabi ga Herta Müller

A bana wata ´yar Romaniya amma ´yar asalin Jamus Herta Müller ta ci kyautar Nobel da ake bawa marubuta adabi.

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Herta Mueller, wadda ta ci kyautar Nobel ta adabi a wannan shekara

Ita dai Hetta Müller ta tashi ne a ƙasar Romaniya a cikin wani yanayin rayuwa da ta kwatanta da makaranta ta tsoro musamman a cikin rubuce rubucenta. Tun a cikin shekarun 1990 an fassara littattafanta a cikin harsuna fiye da 20 kuma ta kasance ɗaya daga cikin mashahuran marubuta adabi a duniya. Shirin na yau dai zai duba rayuwar wannan marubuciyar adabi mai shekaru 56 da haihuwa wadda a shekarar 1987 da ita da mijinta suka nemi izinin zuwa nan Jamus.

“Har yanzu ban yarda da wannan labarin ba. Na san cewa na samu kyautar amma har yanzu ina cikin mamakin samun wannan lambar yabo ta Nobel.”

An dai yi tafi mai tsawo lokacin da aka ba da sanarwar wadda ta ci lambar yabon ta bana. Kuma ba a yi mamaki ba ganin cewa Herta Müller ce aka zaɓa domin tun ba yau ba da yawa daga cikin marubuta da masana harkokin al´adu na ƙasar Sweden sun yi ta nuna ƙauna ga aikace aikacen Herta Müller, daga cikinsu har da mai bi diddigin ayyukan adabi Ulrike Milles wadda ta yi nuni da cewa.

“Herta Müller ta kasance marubuciya da na fi son karanta littattafan ta. Ta ƙware sosai cikin aikin ta na wallafa littattafai. Tana tsage gaskiya koman ɗacinta. Tana takatsantsa wajen zaɓan kalamai mafi dacewa a rubuce rubucen ta.”

An dai haifi Herta Müller a ranar 17 ga watan Agustan shekarar 1953 a Nitzkydorf wani ƙaramin ƙauyen masu magana da harshen Jamusanci dake a jihar Banat ta ƙasar Romaniya. Harshen Jamusanci na taka muhimmiyar rawa a rayuwarta da kuma aikinta na rubuta adabi.

“Harshen Jamusanci ya kasance wani harshe na raɗin kai wato ga talakawa, kasancewa an fi amfani da harshen Romaniya, saboda haka na ƙuduri aniyar koyan Jamusanci. Wannan harshen tamkar sa´a ne a gare ni. Na sha faɗi ta shi tsakanin harsunan guda biyu wato Jamusanci a matsayin harshen uwa da kuma na Romaniya a matsayin harshen hukuma.”

Ta yi karatu a fannin al´adun Jamus da kuma adabin ƙasar Romaniya. To sai dai an hana ta rubuta littattafai a cikin ƙasar domin ta ƙi yarda ta bawa hukumar leƙen asirin ƙasar hadin kai. Hakan ya sa hukumomin ƙasar sun yi mata kallon wata abokiyar gabarsu. Saboda tace labaru ya sa ta ƙi ƙaddamar da littafinta na farko da ta rubuta a Romaniya. Ta dai ƙauracewa gwamnatin ɗan mulkin kama karya wato marigayi Ceausescu inda a cikin shekara ta 1987 da ita da mijinta suka yi ƙaura zuwa Jamus, a saboda haka a adabinta ta fi ba da muhimmanci ga batutuwan da suka shafi marasa ƙasa ta asali.

“Ban taɓa rubuta littafi da harshen al´umar Romaniya ba duk da ƙwarewa ta a wannan harshe kasancewa a nan na tashi kuma na iya rubuta shi. Kuma duk da cewa kalaman da nake furutawa da Jamusanci ne amma a kullum tunani na na magana daidai yake da na ´yan Romaniya.”

A cikin sabon littafinta Herta Müller ta ba da labarin yadda wani matashi ya tsinci kansa a wani sansanin ´yan gudun hijira na Rasha. Littafin ya ƙunshi irin halin rashin sanin tabbas da ´yan Romaniya masu asali da Jamus kimanin dubu 80 suka samu kansu ciki bayan yaƙin duniya na biyu. Yanzu haka dai wannan littafin na daga ciki jerin litattafan da aka zaɓa don ba su lambar yabo ta mawallafan Jamusawa a wannan wata. Müller ta yi nuni da yadda rashin shugabanni adilai ke sanya mutane suna ƙaura daga yankunansu na asali.

“A kullum mutane su kan yi ƙaura daga ƙasashensu na asali zuwa wasu wurare na daban saboda miyagun ayyuka da mulkin kama karya da wasu shugabanni ke yi waɗanda ke son mayar da ƙasa tamkar mallakinsu.”

Shugabanni da sauran jama´a a Romaniya da kuma a nan Jamus sun yi maraba tare da taya ta murnar samun wannan kyauta. Daga cikinsu kuwa har da shugabar gwamnatin Jamus Angela Merkel.

“Wannan abin tamkar faɗuwa ce ta zo daidai da zama kasancewar muna bikin cika shekaru 20 da faduwar katangar Berlin, wannan kyautar wata muhimmiyar alama ce kuma ina taya Herta Müller murnar samun wannan kyauta.”

Wannan dai ba shi ne karon farko da aka bawa wata ko wani Bajamushe ko mai magana da harshen Jamusanci wannan kyauta da ake bawa marubuta adabi ba. Kimanin shekaru 10 da suka wuce wani Bajamushe mai suna Günter Grass ya samu wannan kyauta. Sannan a shekara ta 2004 wata ´yar ƙasar Austriya wato Elfriede Jelinek ta ci wannan lambar yabo. Wannan dai shi ne karo na 10 da Jamusawa suka samu wannan kyauta. A kan haka shugabar gwamnatin ta Jamus ta ƙara da yaba ayyukan wannan talika tana mai cewa ko shakka babu ta cancanci samun wannan kyauta.

“Herta Müller na ɗaya daga cikin mawallafa da suka cancanci samun wannan lambar yabo. Ta rubuta littattafan adabi masu dangantaka da rayuwarta ƙarƙashin ´yan mulkin kama karya dake danne haƙin jama´a. Ta yi namijin ƙoƙari wajen bayyana ra´ayinta.”

Wani masanin tarihin fasaha kuma mai ilimin falsafa Andrei Plesu ya ce ko da yake Herta Müller marubuciya ce Bajamushiya amma ɗaukacin ayyukanta sun ƙunshi tarihin Romaniya da na gabashin Turai. Ita ma masaniyar tarihi Germinia Nagat tana da irin wannan ra´ayi inda take cewa.

“Babbar marubuciya Bajamushiya ce. Amma a gare ni ita ´yar Romaniya ce saboda rayuwar da ta yi a cikin tsarin kwaminisanci kuma ta zayyana haka a cikin littattafanta. Marubuciya ce da ta yi fice a duniya baki ɗaya dangane da ƙwarewarta a batutuwan tarihi.”

Kawo yanzu dai wannan marubuciyar ta samu kyaututtuka lambobi yabo da dama na marubuta adabi ciki har na nahiyar Turai, to amma kyautar Nobel ta duniya baki ɗaya na matsayin ƙololuwar dukkan kyautattukan da ta samu kawo yanzu.

A ranar 10 ga watan Disamba na wannan shekara Herta Müller za ta karɓi wannan kyauta ta Nobel a birnin Stockholm.

Mawallafi: Mohammad Nasiru Awal

Edita: Hauwa Abubakar Ajeje

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