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Siyasa

Jam'iyyun siyasar Jamus da manufofinsu

Yayin da zaben Jamus ke kara karatowa, jam'iyyun siyasa na cigaba da zafafa yakin neman za. Wannan rahoton da muka samar zai yi magana ne kan jam'iyyun Jamus da irin manufofinsu.

Jam'iyyun Christian Democratic Union (CDU) / Christian Social Union (CSU)

Launi: Baki

Shugaba: Angela Merkel

mambobi: 430,000

Masu zabe: Sama da kashi 60 cikin dari na masu zuwa majami'a, a yankunan da ke wajen birane, musamman a Kudancin Jamus su ke zama akan gaba wajen zabar jam'iyyar CDU da CSU. Jam'iyyar CDU ta karbu ga masu kananan masana'antu da mutane da ke da matsakaici na ilimi ko kasa da haka. Zaben majalisar dokoki na (Bundestag ) a 2013 ya nunar: Kashi 41.5 cikin dari na nasara wato kujeru (311 daga 630).

Tarihi: Jam'iyyar CDU an kafata a Yammacin Jamus a shekarar 1945 bayan yakin duniya na biyu inda suka zama matattara ta masu zabe Kirista masu ra'ayin rikau, ta kasance jam'iyya fitacciya bayan yakin a Jamus ta Yamma da ma lokacin da Jamus ta hade wuri guda inda ta jagoranci gwamnati a tsawon shekaru 47 daga cikin shekaru 67 tare da abokiyar tafiyarta daga yankin Bavaria wato jam'iyyar Christian Social Union (CSU).

CDU-Wahlkampf mit Angela Merkel (picture-alliance/dpa/F. Gentsch)

Angela Merkel na fafutuka wajen ganin ta sake darewa kan kujerar shugabancin gwamnatin Jamus

Shugaban gwamnatin Jamus Konrad Adenauer da ya mulki kasar tsakanin 1949 zuwa 1963 na daga cikin wadanda ake kallo cikin na kusa da ake ganin sun kafa wannan jam'iyya. Shi Adenauer da ministan tattalin arziki a gwamnatinsa wanda kuma daga bisani ya gaje shi wato Ludwig Erhard, sun samar da sauyi na ban mamaki a fannin tattalin arziki na Jamus ta Yamma. Jam'iyyar ta ci gaba da samun tagomashi da samun daidaito musamman a lokacin Shugaban gwamnatin Jamus Helmut Kohl, da ya jagoranci hadewar Jamus ta Gabas da Jamus ta Yamma a shekarar 1990, abin da ya kafa ginshiki na Jamus ta wannan lokaci.

Manufa: Angela Merkel ta kasance mai ci gaba da dabbakawa da samar da sauyi a manufofin jam'iyyar ta CDU, tare da ministan kudinta Wolfgang Schäuble, Jamusawa dai sun yarda da kamun ludayinta wajen tafi da fannin tattalin arziki, ta kuma ci gaba da adawa da auren jinsi, dan sauyi da ta samar kan batun shigar baki kasar ya haifar mata da suka ko da kuwa daga cikin 'ya'yan jam'iyyar ta CDU. Jam'iyyu da ake ganin za su iya kawance da CDU sun hada FDP da SPD,watakila jam'iyyar Greens mai rajin akre muhalli.

 

Jam'iyyar Social Democratic Party (SPD)

Launi: Ja

Shugaba: Martin Schulz

Dan takara: Martin Schulz

Sakamakon zaben 'yan majalisa ta (Bundestag) 2013: Jam'iyyar ta samu kashi 25.7 cikin dari wato kujeru (193 daga cikin 630)

Mambobi: 440,000

Masu zabe: Jam'iyyar SPD bisa al'ada wadanda ke zabenta ma'aikata ne, da kungiyoyi na 'yan kwadago, yankin da jam'iyyar ta SPD tafi taka na zama yankunan da masana'antu suka fi yawa Yammacin Jamus, musamman yankin Ruhr a jihar North Rhine-Westphalia da Hesse da Lower Saxony.

Tarihi: Jam'iyyar SPD ta kasance jam'iyya mafi dadewa a Jamus an kafata a shekarar 1875. A gwamman farko na shekaru a karni na 20, jam'iyyar ta kasance matattara ta masu ra'ayin kawo sauyi, da kungiyoyin na 'yan kasuwa da 'yan gurguzu, amma da bayyanar jam'iyyar Communist Party of Germany (KPD) a shekarar 1919, Jam'iyyar SPD ta zama ta masu kawo sauyi, ba masu ra'ayin juyin juya hali ba, ko da yake wannan bai hana a sanya mambobinta a sansanin gwale-gwale ba a lokacin 'yan Nazi.

Deutschland Bundestagswahl 2017 - SPD - Martin Schulz (Getty Images/AFP/C. Bilan)

Martin Schulz da ke jagorantar SPD na kan gaba wajen kalubalantar Angela Merkel a zaben 24 ga watan Satumba

Shugaban gwamnati na farko daga jam'iyyar ta SPD wanda ya ci gaba da rike shugabancinta na girmamawa duk da rasuwar shi ne Willy Brandt wanda ya mulki Jamus ta Yamma daga shekarar 1969 zuwa 1974 bayan da ya samu kima tsakanin kasa da kasa sakamakon tabbatar da sulhu tsakanin Jamus da kasashen Gabashin Turai bayan yaki a lokacin ya na ministan harkokin wajen Jamus a gwamnatin hadaka da jam'iyyar CDU, wanda ya gaje shi shima ya fito ne daga jam'iyyar ta SPD wato Helmut Schmidt, dukkansu sun kasance masu kima a siyasar Jamus. Baki daya dai jam'iyyar ta kasance wani bangare na gwamnatocin Jamus inda suka yi mulkin shekaru 34 cikin shekaru 67 a ciki sun yi mulkin gwamnatin hadaka tsawon shekaru 21.

Manufa: A koda yaushe manufar jam'iyyar ta SPD na tafiya da tsare-tsaren kula da al'umma, inda take tsayawa kai da fata wajen an samar wa al'umma ababen more rayuwa. Ita ce a shekarar 2015 kan gaba wajen ganin abin da ma'aikaci zai iya samu idan ya yi aiki duk sa'a guda shi ne euro 8.84 wato ($9.40).

Sai dai kuma sakamakon ajandar kwadago ta shekarar 2010, sauyin da jam'iyyar ta SPD karkashin Shugaban gwamnati Gerhard Schröder a shekarun 2000 ta samar ya sa jam'iyyar ta rasa goyon bayanta irin na da, don haka ne ma bai zamo abin mamaki ba dan takarar jam'iyyar Martin Schulz ke sa himma wajen gyare-gyare da bada fifiko kan hakkin 'yan kasa da rarraba haraji. Jam'iyyun da SPD za su iya kawance sun hada da Greens da CDU da watakila masu ra'ayin sauyi.

 

Jam'iyyar masu ra'ayin sauyi (Die Linke)

Launi: Ja (Lokacin zabe ta kan yi amfani da launin galura don bambamta da SPD)

Shugabanni: Katja Kipping, Bernd Riexinger

'Yan takara: Sahra Wagenknecht da Dietmar Bartsch

Sakamakon zaben 'yan majalisa ta (Bundestag) 2013: Ta samu kashi 8.6 cikin dari wato kujeru (64 daga cikin 630)

Mambobi: 60,000

Masu zabe: Yankunan da jam'iyyar ke da karfi na zama sabbin jihohin Jamus a tsohuwar Jamus ta Gabas (In da ta taka rawa a zaben 'yan majalisar jiha) inda masu zabe suka nuna goyon bayan ga tsohuwar jam'iyyar 'yan gurguzu GDR, mafi akasari tsofaffi. A Yammacin Jamus wadanda ke marawa jam'iyyar baya su ne wadanda suka yiwa tsofaffin Jam'iyyu tawaye, ba don ba a shawa zabuka alwashi ba da wadannan sun sauya zuwa jam'iyyar masu kyamar baki ta AfD cikin shekaru biyu da suka gabata.

Deutschland Wahlplakat der Partei Die Linke in Bonn (DW/I. Sheiko)

Die Linke na kan gaba wajen adawa da tura sojojin Jamus zuwa kasashen waje kana ta na so a rushe kungiyar tsaro ta NATO

Tarihi: Duk da cewa an kafa jam'iyyar a shekarar 2007, jam'iyyar ana iya cewa tana da tsohon tarihi domin ana ganin ta samo asali daga jam'iyyar 'yan gurguzu ta Socialist Unity Party (SED) wacce ta mulki Jamus ta Gabas GDR har sai lokacin da aka hade Jamus ta Gabas da Jamus ta Yamma a shekarar 1990. An kafa jam'yyar ne bayan hadakar SED, jam'iyyar Democratic Socialism (PDS) da Labour and Social Justice - The Electoral Alternative (WASG) da hadakar 'yan kwadago daga Jamus ta Yamma da wadanda ba su gamsu da tsarin SPD ba musamman tsarin Shugaban gwamnati Gerhard Schröder kan tsarin rage walwala. Wani fitacce a jam'iyyar shi ne ministan kudi na farko a lokacin Schröder kuma shugaban jam'iyyar ta SPD Oskar Lafontaine, wanda daga baya ya jagoranci 'yan ware kuma har yanzu fitacce ne. Saboda alakar jam'iyyar da masu mulkin kama karya na Jamus ta Gabas, jam'iyyar ta zama ita kadai ba a son kawance da ita don haka ba a taba hadaka da ita wajen kafa gwamnati ba, duk da cewa tana da kwarewa kan sha'anin mulki a matakin jiha.

Manufa: A yanzu babbar jam'iyyar adawa a majalisar Bundestag, Jam'iyyar ta Left ta kasance a gaba wajen adawa da tura sojojin Jamus zuwa kasashen waje, ta na so a rushe kungiyar tsaro ta NATO, har ila yau a kara yawan albashi daga euro 8.84 a kowace sa'a guda zuwa euro 10. Wasu masanan kimiyar siyasa na kallon jam'iyyar a matsayin ta masu ra'ayin kifar da tsarion jarin hujja, sai dai ta na da'awa ta kafa sharuda a harkokin kasuwanci da bude kofa ga al'umma su zuba jari a harkoki na raya kasa.

Jam'iyyun da za su iya kawance: SPD da Greens

 

Jam'iyyar Greens Party (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen)

Launi: Kore

Shugabanni: Cem Özdemir da Simone Peter

'Yan takara: Cem Özdemir da Katrin Göring-Eckardt

Sakamakon zaben 'yan majalisa ta (Bundestag) 2013: Ta samu kashi 8.4 cikin dari, wato kujeru (63 daga cikin 630)

Mambobi: 60,000

Masu zabe: Jam'iyyar Greens ta dogara ne ga wayayyu 'yan boko, mafi akasari a birane, don haka take da muradi na mamaya a manyan birane na Yammacin Jamus, musamman a yankunan da ake da jami'oi. Shekaru na taka rawa a tsawon shekaru 30 na wannan jam'iyya kasancewar kasa da kashi 10 cikin dari na masu kadawa jam'iyyar kuri'a na a kasa da shekaru 35, jam'iyyar na fafutika ta neman mutane da ke a shekarun aiki.

Tarihi: Jam'iyyar ta Green ana kallonta a matsayin wacce ta cimma nasara sosai a tarihin Jamus bayan yaki. Jam'iyyar da sunanta shi ne Alliance '90/The Greens, ta fito ne daga masu zanga-zangar kare hakkokin jama'a a shekarun 1980, wadanda ke gangami kama daga adawa da amfani da makamashin nukiliya da fafutikar 'yancin 'yan luwadi da uwa uba kare muhalli.

Berlin Bundesparteitag Die Grünen climate first (Reuters/H. Hanschke)

Jam'iyyar The Greens ta yi fice wajen rajin kare muhalli a Jamus

Wannan fafutika ce aka hade ta zama tafiya ta siyasa da aka hade a shekarar 1993 amma ita jam'iyyar an kafata a 1980.

Jam'iyyar ta zama fitacciya a shekarun 2000 da ta zama karamar abokiyar kawancen jam'iyyar SPD karkashin Gerhard Schröder a kawancen tarayya, sun bada ministocin gwamnati da suka hadar da ministan harkokin waje Joschka Fischer. Babbar nasararta a siyasa tazo ne a shekarar 2009 inda ta samu sama da kashi 10 cikin dari a karon farko kuma shi ne sau daya.

Manufa: Sani a fage na siyasa ya raba wannan jam'iyyar siyasa ta Greens gida biyu wato "realos" da "fundis". "realists" su ne wadanda ke a shirya a samar da sauyi a wasu manufofi na siyasa don a shiga a dama da su a gwamnati da kuma "realos" wadanda harkokin jam'iyyar ke a hannunsu ta yadda har suka shiga kawance da CDU mai mulki a jihar da ke a Kudanci Baden-Württemberg

Yayin da fafutikar kare muhalli ke kan gaba a jandar jam'iyyar batu na kawo sauyi a harkokin aiyukan gona a farkon shekarun 2000 abu ne da jam'iyyar ke alfahari da shi.

Ta dai so ta danne akidun masu ra'ayin sauyikan harkokin haraji da tsare-tsaren huldodin jama'a, duk da haka ba ta taka rawa ba a zaben da ya gabata, kawancensu da CDU na nuni da cewa za su iya sassautawa kan wasu akidu zuwa tsaka-tsaki a wannan karo.

Jam'iyyar da za su iya kawance: SPD 

 

Jam'iyyar Alternative for Germany (AfD)

Launi: Shudi mai haske

Shugabanni: Frauke Petry da Jörg Meuthen

'Yan takara: Alexander Gauland da Alice Weidel

Mambobi: 27,000

Masu zabe: Jam'iyyar AfD ta yi zawarci na masu kada kuri'a daga manyan jam'iyyu sai dai kawai (Greens), ta kuma yi nasara wajen jan hankali na wadanda ba sa ma zabe, wadanda ke da karamin karfi da koma baya a fage na ilimi sun rungumi jam'iyyar. Kashi 15 ne kawai cikin dari na mabobin jam'iyyar ke zama mata.

Sakamakon zaben 'yan majalisa ta (Bundestag) 2013: kashi 4.7 cikin dari sai dai babu kejerar da ta samu(0/630 )

Tarihi: Jam'iyyar mai kyamar baki ta (AfD) ta zama fitacciya a tsawon shekaru hudu na kafata, an kafata watanni hudu kafin zaben 2013, jam'iyyar saura kiris ta samu dama ta shiga majalisar dokokin na Jamus, ta dai kai ga kutsa kai cikin majalisu a mataki na jihohin Jamus a zaben yankuna sai dai barazanr da take yi a Turai ta dusashe bayan da a kuri'ar jin ra'ayin jama'a ta ke samun koma baya inda take da kashi tara cikin dari.

AfD Parteitag in Rendsburg (picture-alliance/dpa/M. Scholz)

Kin jinin baki na zaman guda daga cikin irin abubuwan da ake tunawa da zarar an yi magana game da jam'iyyar AfD da aka kafa shekaru 4 da suka gabata

Da fari dai wasu masu ilimi da ke fafutika ta rusa shirin amfani da kudin bai daya na Euro, musamman bayan da Merkel ta nuna aniya ta ceton Girka a 2010, lokacin da Turai ta shiga garari na matsin tattalin arziki, sai dai sauyin jagorori daga Bernd Lucke zuwa Frauke Petry, ya haifar da sauyin manufa inda Petry da ke zama jigo a tafiya suka mayar da manufar ta kishin kasa da adawa da baki da kyamar addinin Islama, musamman a lokacin rikicin 'yan gudun hijira na 2015. A shekarar 2016 AfD ta kasance jam'iyya daya tilo da tayi murna da nasarar Donald Trump ya yi a zaben Amirka da janyewar Birtaniya daga Tarayyar Turai.

Manufa: AfD na son rufe iyakokin Turai da matsa bincike a iyakokin Jamus da kafa sansanoni a kasashen waje don tare 'yan gudun hijira. Ga shirin mayar da duk wanda ya rasa mafakar siyasa inda ya fito, da tisa keyar mutane zuwa wajen kasar ta hanyar ma tallafa musu. Akwai bada karfi ga shirin kankane al'adun Jamus da adawa da cewa addinin Islama wani bangare ne na Jamus, suna tafe da shirin nan na nuna tantama ko batun sauyin yanayi gaskiya ne, inda suke neman Jamus ta koma da baya ga shirin nan na makamashi da ake sabintawa.

Jam'iyyar da za su iya kawance: Da yawa jam'iyyun sun ce a kai kasuwa sai dai suna da wasu tsare-tsare irin na CDU.

 

Jam'iyyar  Free Democratic Party (FDP)

Launi: dorawa

Shugaba: Christian Lindner

Sakamakon zaben 'yan majalisa ta (Bundestag) 2013: Kashi  4.8 cikin dari babu kujera a majalisa (0/630)

Mambobi: 54,000
 

Masu zabe: Da yawa daga cikin magoya bayan wannan jam'iyya ta FDP sun kasance masu sana'a da ke da zaman kansu, misali akwai likitocin hakuri da lauyoyi da wasu daga cikin ma'aikata.

Tarihi: Wannan jam'iyya ta ‘yan  Free Democrats na ci gaba da samun wakilai a majalisar dokokin Jamus tun da aka kafa majalisar a shekarar 1949. Jami'yyar ta samu koma baya a zaben 2013 inda ta samu kasa da kashi biyar cikin dari a shekarar 2013 ta na ta faman fafutika kawo yanzu don ita ma a dama da ita a harkokin gwamnati. An kafa jam'iyyar a shekarar 1948, Jam'iyyar ta FDP ta kasance mai fada a ji a harkokin shugabancin jam'iyyun CDU da SPD a lokacin da take ganiyarsa.

FDP Symbolbild - Die Liberalen (picture-alliance/dpa/A. Weigel)

Fafutukar kare hakkin bani Adama na zaman guda daga cikin tubalin da aka aza jam'iyyar FDP a kai

Jam'iyyar ta taka rawa a harkokin gwamnatin Tarayya a tsawon shekaru 41, fiye da kowace jam'iyya. Ko da yake a koda yaushe jam'iyyar ta kasance ana tafe da ita a matsayin karamar jam'iyyar hadaka ta kan bada ministoci, wasu daga cikin irinsu su ne Helmut Kohl da ya kasance ministan harkokin waje da ya dade ana damawa da shi ga Hans-Dietrich Genscher ya kasance jigo a siyasar Jamus tun bayan yakin duniya na biyu.

Manufa: Manufofi jam'iyyar FDP an dora ginshikinsu ne a kan fafutikar kare hakkin bani Adama na daidakun jama'a da gwammai. Duk da cewa ta na fafutika ta a rage haraji, ba ta so a bar kasuwar hada-hada ta tafi haka sakaka. Ta na cikin ‘yan gaba gaba wajen kare manufofin Turai da Kungiyar EU.


Jam'iyyar da za su iya kawance: CDU