For one year Islamic extremists ruled in the Malian city of Timbuktu, damaging its historic library and ancient buildings, and terrorizing its people. Three years after French forces drove them out, hope reigns despite the threat of their return.
The ICC has ruled that a Malian jihadist be fined $3.2 million for the destruction of Timbuktu shrines. International Bar Association executive director, Mark Ellis, told DW he welcomed the court’s landmark ruling.
An early-morning attack on a UN base in the central region was followed by another hours later in northwestern Mali. The assaults confirmed the West African state as the world's deadliest active UN deployment.
ICC judges have made legal history by ruling that a former rebel must pay compensation for the destruction of ancient shrines in Mali's Timbuktu. The historic sites were destroyed in 2012.
Stephen McGowan is the last of three friends to be released by al-Qaida after they were abducted from Timbuktu, while touring Mali on motorbikes. Upon his return home, South Africa said no ransom was paid.
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