Islamic fundamentalist nationalist movement in Afghanistan which has its roots in neighboring Pakistan.
The Taliban (which translates as “students”) were in power in Afghanistan from 1996-2001 and enforced their strict interpretation of the Sharia law. Since the US-led invasion in 2001 and the toppling of the Taliban regime, the insurgents are again on the rise.
Iran has warned it would target militant hideouts inside Pakistan if Islamabad doesn't act against Sunni jihadists. Pakistan's other two neighbors - Afghanistan and India - also accuse Islamabad of backing terrorists.