Home of Europe's largest Jewish community before the Holocaust, Poland is currently witnessing a renaissance of Jewish life. Now congregations struggle to find rabbis who can speak their language.
More than 60 years after their deportation, Polish Jews are becoming more visible again
More than 60 years after the Holocaust Jewish life in Poland is thriving with new diversity.
Before its occupation by Nazi Germany, Poland was once home of Europe's largest Jewish community, and Warsaw was the continent's largest Jewish city.
Poland's Jews were almost wiped out by the Nazis during World War II, while the heroic rising of Warsaw's Jewish Ghetto against the militarily more powerful Nazis marked a tragic end of an era.
But a new era is beginning. Reformed Jews are planning to build communities all over the country where until a few years ago what remained of Jewish life in Poland was either orthodox or completely secular.
Warsaw's market square
Beit Warszawa, the reformed community in Warsaw, started up with only two members in 1999. In the meantime its membership has risen to some 200, and for the last year it has even had its own full-time rabbi, Burt Schuman.
Rabbi Joel Oseran, the associate director of the World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ) in Jerusalem, said that during a recent visit, he met a lively community of people, many of whom had only discovered their Jewish identity a few years ago.
"We're open for all those who are looking for something," Oseran said.
Representatives of the reformed community in recent months have therefore been trying to establish contact to events addressing Poland's Jewish heritage or inter-religious dialogue.
"No matter whether it's Zielona Gora, Gdansk or Lublin -- time and again people approach us who say initially they're just curious and then slowly admit that they're actually of Jewish origin," Schuman said.
A new Jewish museum is scheduled to open in Warsaw in 2008
Many Holocaust survivors were too traumatized to pass on their Jewish heritage to their children or grandchildren, and anti-Semitic incidents in postwar Poland also meant that many remained silent over their Jewish identity.
Religious traditions were revived only after the fall of communism, mainly through the activities of Jewish foundations from the United States, such as the Lauder Foundation.
"I would have told Lauder to diversify," Schuman said, because with the exception of Beit Warszawa all Jewish religious communities in Poland are orthodox.
The museum is expected to include a recreated street scene in a 19th century Jewish town
Only the orthodox Jewish community is recognized by the government and considered the negotiating partner as far as the return of synagogues, graveyards, community buildings or other real estate is concerned.
The Beit Warszawa synagogue was originally a residential building in Warsaw's Wilanow suburb.
"We know from our experiences in Russia that many Jews who grew up without any religious bonds have difficulties with orthodox life," Oseran said to explain the "Jewish outings" at events of the reformed community.
Whether in dealings with issues of religious commandments, rules about food or the acceptance of non-Jewish partners, there are obvious fewer strictures among the less rigid reformed Jews. In keeping with the growing interest, an umbrella organization for reformed communities called Beit Polska is due to be formed next year.
"What we need most of all is rabbis who speak the language and understand the local mentality," Schuman said.
The first step has been taken -- a young Polish Jew is about to take up his studies at the Abraham Geiger College for the education of rabbis in Potsdam in Germany.
Starting this fall, Schuman will be assisted by Rabbi Tanya Segal from Israel.
"What a role model," Schuman said about his future colleague. "She's the first full-time female rabbi in Poland's history -- that will be a real revolution!"
Police in Vienna have found two dozen young Afghan refugees locked in the back of a truck in Vienna. The men had been hiding in an air-tight compartment and risked suffocation, authorities said.
A small arrivals hall at Munich's central train station became the scene of a huge improvised relief effort as more than 2,000 migrants arrived in the Bavarian capital in a single day. Ben Knight reports.
Human rights activists from Africa have been awarded Germany's prestigious Aachen peace prize this year. The recipients include two religious leaders and student volunteers who work with refugees in Morocco.
Despite intense backlash from booking sites and travel agencies, the German airline Lufthansa is now charging users more for bookings made outside direct channels.