Poland has long had problems finding reliable gas imports - particularly from suppliers in the East. Now the government is turning to the controversial method of fracking to tap shale gas reserves.
Total energy use in the European Union is slightly lower today than it was in 1990, but fossil fuels remain king, and dependency on fuel imports has grown. Climate and geopolitical risks have grown in tandem.
Post-Brexit UK wants to buck the trend in Europe and exploit vast gas reserves through the controversial process of fracking. Just one thing stands in the way - widespread and fierce public opposition.
There was a time when Polish policymakers thought the nation's shale gas exploration efforts might eventually decrease Warsaw's energy dependence on Russia. But as Jo Harper reports, the prospects are not so rosy now.
The Netherlands has banned fracking until 2020. Over the past several years, a number of other European countries declared a ban on exploiting new natural gas deposits. So, is the apparent European shale gas boom over?
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