Istanbul is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. It is located in north-western Turkey within the Marmara Region.
The Bosphorus, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea, divides the city into a European (Thracian side), and an Asian (Anatolian side). The city is also divided by the Golden Horn, a natural harbor bounding the peninsula where the former Byzantium and Constantinople were founded.
Istanbul academics have been detained in raids on supposed followers of US-based cleric Fethullah Gulen, accused of a coup plot. Tens of thousands of "Gulenists" in government, schools and the military have been purged.
While an increasing number of writers and journalists are being imprisoned in Turkey, Germany is the guest of honor at the 2016 International Istanbul Book Fair. Can it have an impact on freedom of expression?