The annual survey by Mercer Human Resource Consulting on the quality of urban life worldwide places Frankfurt in fifth place, the highest ranking for a German city. The report evaluates criteria including economic and environmental factors, health, education, transport and safety. The list, which is intended as a guide to life for expatriates rather than for local residents, is topped by Swiss cities Zurich and Geneva. Anti-terrorism measures caused U.S. cities to slip down this year, with time-consuming entry and exit checks resulting from tighter security regarded as detrimental to the quality of life. Iraqi capital Baghdad was bottom of the list of 215 cities.