With the Balkan route effectively closed, EU foreign ministers are meeting in Luxemburg to discuss how they might be able to charm Libya into helping stanch the flow of migrants making their way to Europe through northern Africa.
Civilian sea rescuers have been threatened with weapons while trying to help refugees. World Humanitarian Day is particularly difficult to mark this year, writes Volker Westerbarkey from Doctors Without Borders.
Recent numbers of migrants arriving on European shores suggest shifting migration routes. While numbers in Italy fell sharply in July and August, Spain is experiencing a peak in refugee numbers.
More than 600,000 people from Africa, Asia and the Middle East have arrived in Italy over the last three years. The eviction of 800 migrants from a former office block in central Rome left some sleeping on the streets.
Doctors Without Borders says "hostility" from Libya has forced it to suspend offshore rescues of boat migrants by its ship, Prudence. Libya recently told non-governmental groups to stay away.
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